Saturday, December 28, 2019
Client-centered therapy is a concept that was developed from the humanistic psychology approach and a term coined by Carl Rogers. Humanistic psychology views individuals as autonomous and capable beings, that have the ability to overcome challenges, change their lives for the better and realize their full potential (Seligman, 2006). Rogers emphasized the humanistic approach to working with clients by establishing a therapeutic relationship with them, promoting the individual s self-esteem, supporting them and helping them to realize and utilize their own strengths and have a sense of actualization and authenticity in their lives (Seligman, 2006). This therapeutic approach encourages clinicians to see clientÃ¢â¬â¢s as a Ã¢â¬Å"person: self-determining and self-realizing, a sovereign subjectÃ¢â¬ (Rogers, 1986). The foundation of client-centered therapy is based on the core concepts of human nature, motivation and the person (Rogers, 1986). The person or individual is the key to client-centered therapy. Being able to view the individual as a separate entity and identify them as such is at the foundation of understanding; although this seems like a commonsense notion, there are many contexts in which an individual is lumped into larger classes, such as gender, social class, ethnicity, etc. (Seligman, 2006). The individual is the tool that guides the therapeutic process and environment, setting the tone for what works for them and what the goals for therapy will be. Motivation is also anShow MoreRelatedHistorical Perspective : What You See Yourself862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessummary Key concept # 1 self concept describes how you see yourself. overall perception of your abilities, behaviors, and personality. Ideal self is the person you dike to be. Not shaped by your desires for yourself but is shaped by otherÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions and evaluations and acceptance of you. If these two match up, youre happy. The greater the difference, may caue anger, depression. Key concept # 2 actual self making progress towards ideal self is self actualization, the basic motivation for all humanRead MoreFreud s Theory Of Human Sexuality1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe nature of human sexuality can be developed through genetics, imitated through socialization, influenced by unconscious decisions or if it can be altered after childhood. There are a variety of theories that have been created to help understand the uncertainty of how human sexuality is developed. Uncovering the influence of neuroscience on sexuality and evaluating the appropriateness of Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychoanalytic Theory, Albert BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s Modeling Theory and Carl RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s Person Centered TheoryRead MoreThe Father Of Person Centered Therapy And Humanistic Psychology1420 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Carl Rogers is widely known as the father of person-centered therapy and humanistic psychology. He quietly revolutionized counseling theory and practice with his basic assumptions th at Ã¢â¬Å"people are essentially trustworthy, that they have a vast potential for understanding themselves and resolving their own problems without direct intervention on the therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s part, and that they are capable of self-directed growth if they are involved in a specific kind of therapeutic relationshipÃ¢â¬ . Rogers wasRead MoreCompare and Contrast Psychoanalytic and Person-Centered Therapies2470 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Compare and Contrast: Psychoanalytic and Person-Centered Therapies Leslie A. White Central Missouri State University ` The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the differences and similarities associated with Carl RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s Client-centered theory and Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychoanalytic theory. The focus of the comparisons will fall into the three main topic areas: that of optimal personality development, that of the nature of problem formation, and that of the process of learningRead MorePerson Centered Therapy : A Humanistic Approach1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Person-Centered Theory Brian L. Brooks II Lindenwood University Ã¢â¬Æ' Abstract Person-centered therapy was founded by Carl Rogers in the 1940s. Person-centered therapy was a humanistic approach different than Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytical theory. Person-centered therapy was a non-directive approach where counselors guided their clients towards self-actualization in hopes of attaining fulfillment. Rogers (1979) had an optimistic view of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to achieve fulfillment under theRead MoreOccupational Therapy Has A Long-Standing History Of Being1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Occupational therapy has a long-standing history of being a client-centered profession that aims to understand each person individually to best meet occupational performance needs in their day to day life. Occupational therapists utilize a multitude of resources to best create a plan of care for each client. Resources that are used often include: standardized assessments, evaluations, client-centered interventions and theoretical frame of reference. A theoretical frame of reference is defined asRead MoreOverview of Humanistic Psychology Essay1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespsychological perspective that highlights the study of a person in whole. These psychologist look at human behavior not just through the eyes of the viewer, but also through the eyes of the client that has the behavior. These psychologist believe that an individuals behavior is associated to his or her intimate feelings and their self image. Humanistic psychologist accepts human beings are not just a commodity of the environment. These psychologist study human meanings, understanding, and experiences involvedRead Moreexplore the behavioral and humanistic theory6235 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pageshumanistic psychology was Abraham Maslow; he established the hierarchy levels of needs and believed that by achieving the needs in the correct order would allow individuals to become self-actualized. However, Carl Rogers a psychologist and father of ClientÃ¢â¬âcentered theory felt that in addit ion to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchical needs, in order for someone to achieve self-actualization they need to be in a positive environment. Which would provide them with, approval, understanding and authenticity, and if one wereRead MoreEvaluate the Claim That Person-Centred Therapy Offers the Therapist All That He/She Will Need to Treat Clients2502 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Evaluate the claim that Person-Centred Therapy offers the therapist all that he/she will need to treat clientsÃ¢â¬ The humanistic movement was established as a way to expand and improve upon the two other schools of thought; behaviourism and psychoanalysis, which had, up until the first half of the 20th century dominated psychology. An American theorist called Abraham Maslow began to research creativity in humans through art and science. He first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs inRead MoreIntegrated Approach For Counseling And Counseling1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntegrated approach to counseling is when you combined theories to cover the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings, cognitive patterns, and behavior (Corey, Theory and Practice of Counseling and Pschotherapy 8e, 2009). Each theory focuses one of these key components of a client but in counseling you need to focus on each of these to fully help a client. The key to integrative counseling is to have multiple theories function in harmony (Corey, Theory and Practice of Counseling and Pschotherapy 8e, 2009). Psychotherapy
Friday, December 20, 2019
SC3 Demonstrated ability to monitor and assess student learning data and to use this data to inform teaching for improved student learning. Whenever I begin a unit, I access NAPLAN results to allow me to gauge my studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability and progress, and adapt my pedagogies accordingly. I also use TORC testing and On Demand data to provide me with the information required to ensure my students are able to understand and complete my common formative tasks. I attempt to provide prompt, useful and constructive feedback to my students. I ask my students to submit their work using Edmodo, where I can offer assistance and feedback outside of class times. I present my students with an anonymous work survey using Survey Monkey, where they have the opportunity to self-assess their previous work. I did this, as I wanted to understand how my students believed they were performing before I assessed them myself. I gave all of my students a variety of assessment tasks and methods to give them and their parents with evidence of what students knew and could do, and their particular strengths and weaknesses. I was then able to report on how far students had progressed during the year, how they compared to the relevant standards, and where the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance needed improvement. This also allowed me to reflect on my performance and to seek areas where I could improve my teaching. At all of my schools, I have kept concise, accurate notes on student progress for all classes, toShow MoreRelatedImproving Student Motivation And Performance Are Improved With Active Learning And Student Centered Teaching Strategies1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStrategies to Increase Nursing Student Motivation Traditional education viewed students as Ã¢â¬Å"passive recipients of face-to-face instructor designed and led classes (McGarry, Theobald, Lewis, Coyer, 2015, p. 967). The researchers understood the challenges nurse educators faced in engaging students and cultivating new nursing graduates with skills benefitting societal and professional sustainability. The aim of this paper is to determine by integrative review whether nursing student motivation and performanceRead MoreThe Internet Has Improved Education1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe internet has improved education because of its immediate access to an abundance of information. According to State Univeristy in the article, Ã¢â¬ Technology in Education - SchoolÃ¢â¬ states, Ã¢â¬Å"Students once relied upon local and school libraries and their printed reference materials to research topics. Now, however, computer technologies provide access to digital versions of these referencesÃ¢â¬âand to libraries worldwide. Encyclopedia s on CD-ROMs provide information, digital images, video, and audio, andRead MoreThe Importance Of Critical Reflection On Teaching1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessupported by Brookfield, he says that Critically reflective teaching happens when we identify and scrutinise the assumptions that undergird how we workÃ¢â¬ (Brookfield, 1995, pg. 11-13). This is further supported by Ghaye, T Ghaye, k (Ghaye, 1998); he argued that many teachers have benefited from learning through reflection. Their teaching and understanding of what is possible and less possible, impacts of activities on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning and its boundaries have risen as a result of reflection. EstablishedRead MoreEven though Zimbabwe has the highest literacy rates in Africa, the high school pass rate remains at1600 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesschools and teachers only improved the enrollment, but not the pass rate in the national General Certificate of Secondary Education. According to David Coltart, former Minister of Education, Sports and Culture, the average ordinary level pass rate for the past 10 years is less than 20% (Marufu, 2013). Even though high school teachers in Zimbabwe attended college to obtain professional teacher training, continuous professional development can help in increasing teaching effectiveness in schools. Read MoreAnalysis of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination Teaching Sesion964 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescritically analyse my recent OSCE teaching session, in relation to the experience of how I taught a skill to a junior student. This will involve reflecting upon the experience, critically analysing my strengths in the teaching session and areas for development and evaluation about the implications for my future practice when teaching students, patients and relatives. This will be supported by relevant literature. Reflection: I felt nervous at the beginning of teaching the skill, due to the importanceRead MoreWhy Did the Railroad Network Grow so Rapidly After the Civil War? What Consequences Did This Have for the Countrys Economic Development?1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesadults are motivated to learn, what principles of learning works, so that adult educators could likewise respond appropriately. The participatory worldview that author Lyle Yorks (2005) describes draws heavily on the theory and practice in adult learning and action research. This creates a kind of social space in organization that is important in the facilitation of a practice-based example. Making it participative can always facilitate learning. Andragogy is defined as the art and scienceRead MoreStudy Of An Instructor s Fluency Affects Students Perceptions Of Amount Of Material Learned1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Section on Replication Study of an InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Fluency Affects StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Perceptions of Amount of Material Learned Herminia Reyes PSYC 3030: Research Methods Dr. Matthew Schmolesky, Instructor Georgia Gwinnett College An Introduction Section on Replication Study of an InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Fluency Affects StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Perceptions of Amount of Material Learned Can the preparedness of an instructor influence how well a student learns or a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s belief of how much he or she learned? There haveRead MoreThe Concept Of E Learning Inclusion Into An Education Essay1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Concept of e-learning inclusion into an education begins with the teacher and the manner in which they teach. A simple explanation of the view is that the teacher is the final authority and source of knowledge.The problem for many teachers is transition of teaching in manner than accommodate the use of technology. Mining how they have previously been teaching with the use of technology which gives birth to e-learning. In e-learning, Technology is simply a mean that teachers may use in differentRead MoreProfessional Development for Teachers Essay1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesby observation to see what need to be improved. One idea that came to mind was some teacher were using peer tutoring as a tool to get out of instruction, thus they were not pay ing sufficient attention to the students as they worked. The article titled: Using Peer Tutoring to Facilitate Access discussed the findings of this teaching strategy in all levels of learning and basics subjects. This strategy has been defined as one of best ways to reach the student. In comparison to GuskyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, thereRead MoreThe Effect Of The Course-Mode And Gender On Academic Achievement1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Effect of the Course-Mode and Gender on Academic Achievement of Graduate Students Abstract: The goal of this study is to see if there is a significant difference in academic achievement of graduate students in the College of Education at University of Central Florida based on gender, and the course-mode (mixed-mode, online). A mixed-mode course: interactions between the instructor and students are planned and facilitated both synchronously (in-person) and asynchronously (online) on a regular
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Predictors Of Applicant At Different Stages? Answer: Introduction The report provides an overview about the assessment selection procedure of the start-up enterprise for bringing the best staffs for the job. Selection assessment methods refer to the guide to implementation of formal assessment for building high-quality workforce. This method is usually implemented by the organization to accurately measure capability levels of the candidate against the levels of capability that is required for this role. In addition, it also helps to consistently administer as well as measure the performance of a candidate on their capabilities. Different assessment selection procedure is used by the human resource management of this organization to assess the personality, knowledge, attitude, adaptability, managerial and communication skills of the candidates (Bhoganadam Rao, 2014). This start-up company is going to adopt valuable assessment selection methods for recruiting managers and administrative officers in order to achieve success in the long term. This rep ort highlights on the skills needed as well as factors to be considered for the position of administrative officer and manager. The KASO requirement for each of these positions is also discussed in this study. Furthermore, the selection procedure for each of this position is also elucidated in this report. This report also focuses on the problems that might be envisaged while carrying out assessment and selection methods. In the last section, recommendation on the selection system is also given in this study. Selection criteria for manager positions Having experience in administering employees Demonstrated knowledge in developing as well as implementing policies Having strong communication as well as negotiation skills Good computer skills Experience to manage operations of company including incorporated associations, proper knowledge regarding compliance issues Demonstrated skills in time management Capability to create short term plans Selection criteria for administrative positions String administrative as well as interpersonal skills Knowledge of communication technology Well-developed skills in solving any kind of problems Ability to administer workloads within deadlines Tertiary qualifications such as technical certification degree Selection process for each position As the research station for the agribusiness is located in the remote area, the selection procedure for the position of manager and administrative officer will be taken through online mode. This recruitment procedure for these two positions is illustrated below: Online Advertisement for the position- The range of online advertisement options to be considered for these two positions are- on-line job boards and social media platforms for attracting talented and skilled candidates (Madera, 2012). Managing the application procedure- The application form of the candidates will be received through online mode. This will help to assess the suitability of candidate for this specific position (Kumari, 2012). Based on the education qualification and experience, the candidates form will be screened. Online selection test- Both preliminary and main test will be held for selecting the candidates through online mode. This will help to attract individuals with diverse nationality, minorities and ethnicity. The cut off marks of preliminary exam will be 40 out of 100. The candidates passing this test will be selected for the main test. Shortlisting of candidates-The candidates will be shortlisted for the main test based on the cut off marks attained in the preliminary exam. Moreover, based on the availability on number of total vacancies, the cut offs marks for the main examination will be decided. In addition, final merit list will be made based on the consolidated marks that is secured by these candidates. Assessment of candidates- The selection committee will be held for assessing the shortlisted candidates. The members of this committee will also assess the candidates based on the marks obtained by them in both preliminary and main exam. The cut off marks for the total test is 150 out of 300. If the candidate does not qualify this cut off marks although qualifying in all subjects, then these candidates will be eliminated. Personal interview- This interview process will help to weed out several applicants. The interview question will be prepared by the assessment committee, which will be asked to these shortlisted candidates. In addition, this interview will be taken over phone or vedio calling as the project is going to be developed in remote place (Dineen Williamson, 2012). If the candidates can answer 15 out 20 questions, they will be selected for the next round and others will be eliminated. Background analysis of the candidate- The candidates selected will be checked based on their past records. This will help to provide clear image of the character of the candidate. Furthermore, it will also help to eliminate those candidates who will not meet the above selection criteria. Physical test- The psychometric test of the selected candidates will also be held through online mode, which in turn will help to ascertain their mental and psychological capabilities. Final Selection- The candidates are finally selected after all this verification test. Assessment weight The assessment weight for selecting the candidates for these two positions is given as- 60% or 60 points to the online test and 40% to the interview. The total assessment weight should be equal to 100 points or 100%. For estimating the candidate score- Firstly, divide the score by total marks that is available for assignment Multiplying each score with its weight Summing up weighted score for obtaining the final marks. The online preliminary as well as main exam test and personal interview of candidates over phone are the two selection tools that have highest weightage. This is because the total marks obtained by the candidates through these selection tools will help to make right decision in eliminating candidates in these two stages and thereby hire the right personnel. Skills needed and factors to consider for the position of manager and administrative officer The given case study reflects that agriculture being the vital industry in India, the government of this nation has put in strategic plans to develop research institute in the Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh. Being the HR consultant of this project, the assessment- selection system for hiring managers and administrative officers has been developed depending on their skills and other factors (Highhouse, Doverspike Guion, 2015). The skills required for the position of the mangers are given below: Communication skill- The managers are required to have proper communication skills as they plays vital role in coordinating the project and assign task to the individual team member. As they also have the responsibility to understand the requirement of employees and stay in line of contact with their staff and clients, good communication skill is required for the mangers to be hired in this project. Team management ability- The managers required for this project must have the skill of administering as well as coordinating the team by delegating task, setting goals and resolving conflict. The managers must have team management ability as they are required to boost the morale of workers so that they contribute their best efforts in developing the research institute. Leadership skill-The managers to be hired must have the leadership skill so that they effectively handle the workers of this project (Lin, Hu Wu, 2014) Moreover, this skill is also needed as the managers will have to effectively assign responsibility to different workers of the project. This skill of the managers will help them to achieve the target within the specified time period. Decision making skill- Decisions are mainly classified as strategic, operational and regular. This skill is required as the managers hired will have to set various criteria while making judgment based on this decision. Managers with effective decision making skill will help in bringing together the workers to implement different solution regarding development of research institute. Administrative as well as financial skill- This skill is needed for the managers to be hired as they will set the budget relating to development of research institute and carry out other administrative works. However, this skill will increase the efficiency of the managers and achieve success in this project. Other factors to be considered while recruiting the managers for this project are their personality, attitude and work experience. Similarly, the skills needed for the position of administrative officers are given below: Planning skill- The administrative officer to be hired is required to have planning skills so that they can complete the project within the specified time limit. Moreover, this skill of administrative officer will also lead to proper utilization of resources. Organization skill- The role of administrative officer involves several paper works such as -sourcing, experimenting, accounting and filing (Schmitt, 2012). However, the administrative officer to be hired for this project is required to have organization skill so that they can handle the work effectively. Another vital requirement for this skill is efficiency in meeting the target setting. Technological skills- As the administrative officer operates with different technological tools for scheduling programs of this project, it is necessary for the individual to have proper technological skills (Miller Guo, 2013). However, this skill of administrative officer will lead to increase in total productivity of the work to be done for completing the project. Time management skill- This skill is required for this post so that the administrative officer helps in completing the project within the specified time limit. Interpersonal skills- As the role of the administrative officers is to build relationship with the individuals in various circumstances, it is necessary for them to have proper interpersonal skills (Ployhart Kim, 2014). In this case, the administrative officer must have this skill as they are required to reach across the various audiences. Moreover, this skill also helps in keeping good relationship with the staffs as well as manages their time in efficient way. Other factors to be considered for the position of administrative officer are- written as well as verbal communication skills, capability to support external as well as internal stakeholders, management skills and technical technique. KSAOs required for each of the positions The acronym of KSAO is knowledge, skill, abilities and other features. It is one of the vital tools used by the HR managers for recruiting the personnel. This mainly describes about the attributes as well as skills needed for as specific position in the organization. Knowledge involves the body of information which mainly consists of procedures as well as facts. Skills basically involve the abilities that are related to manual, mental and verbal processing of information. Ability signifies the total capacity for effectively engaging in the activities. Other features mainly include attributes which do not lie under skills, ability and knowledge but are important for the position including proper listening skills, politeness and courteousness. The KSAO needed for the administrative officer position are given below: Knowledge- The requirement of knowledge for this position involves- secondary training in agricultural field, work experience in this field and technical training relating to the department where they will work. Skills- The skills required for this position involves- planning skills for establishing work priorities and ensuring that deadlines are met, organization skills for reviewing and evaluating new administrative procedures, technological skills for preparing the departmental budgets and demonstrating working knowledge, time managements kill for preparing periodic reports within particular time limit (Swider, Zimmerman Barrick, 2015). Ability- This includes- ability to prioritize as well as manage multiple work, ability to monitor relevant activities, ability to evaluate the effectiveness of policies and programs, ability to recognize resources for completing the project. Other characteristics- This involves- ability to provide subordinates with good leadership, ability to align with mission as well as values of company, ability to deal with stress, ability to create positive environment in workplace by interacting with workers. The ability of the managers to identify the resources for completing the project successfully within specified time and their ability in dealing with stress are the two critical ones identified in KSAO for this personnel level position. Similarly, the KSAO required for the position of manager involves- Knowledge- The knowledge required for this post are- the degree in management as well as analytics, education in computer programs and other knowledge of hardware as well as software system. Skill- The skill required or this position involves technical and social processing skills. Both these skills help to effectively complete the project with the specified time limit. Moreover, forward planning skill is also required for this post so that they have the ability to plan resource utilization beforehand. Ability-The manager are required to have the ability to delegate with easiness, leadership competence, ability in building a team and so on. Other characteristics- This involves money management ability, ability in building good relationship with subordinates, flexibility and integrity ability optimism attitude and so on. The forward planning skill and leadership competence are the two critical ones that have been identified in KASO required for the position of personnel level. The online exam selection method and personal interview over phone or video calling method are the two selection tests, which reflect that these selection tools do not include any biasness. Although biasness can occur during background analysis of candidates, the psychometric test will help to ensure fairness of plan while selecting these candidates. Problems envisaged in carrying out assessment and selection procedures Several problems can be envisaged in carrying out assessment and selection procedures of hiring candidates for these two positions. As the candidates will be hired via online test, this will increase overall expense cost of this project. Increase in expenditure will occur due to implementation of advanced technology including new software and hardware system in computer. In addition, bringing the employees to work in this remote place will also add to cost of expenditure. Furthermore, communicating with the applicants will create problem during the selection procedure as it is going to be held via online mode. Recommendation of each of the selection system The recommendation given below will help to improve the assessment selection procedure of hiring managers and administrative officers. These includes- The job descriptions for these two posts should be provided in detail, so that it becomes easier for the foreign candidates to understand about this post (Uggerslev, Fassina, Kraichy, 2012) Psychometric test should be included while recruiting the candidates for these two specific posts. Proper recruitment strategy should be implemented in order to reduce the total expenditure cost of the selection process. New technology should be adopted while recruiting and selecting the individuals. However, Applicant tracking system (ATS) will help to sort as well as manage the individuals for this post. Conclusion The conclusion that can be drawn from the above report is that effective recruitment strategy is vital for hiring the candidates from the global market. In addition, proper implementation of new technology will help to improve the selection procedure especially for the startup enterprise. This enterprise should also adopt different selection procedure while hiring the applicants for this post. As the research station is located in the remote area in India, the hire- select assessment tool will be used for selecting the individuals for this position. For these two positions, the focus will be mainly on testing the leadership qualities and communication skills of the candidates. References Bhoganadam, S. D., Rao, D. S. (2014). A study on recruitment and selection process of Sai Global Yarntex (India) private limited.International Journal of Management Research and Reviews,4(10), 996. Dineen, B. R., Williamson, I. O. (2012). Screening?oriented recruitment messages: Antecedents and relationships with applicant pool quality.Human Resource Management,51(3), 343-360. Highhouse, S., Doverspike, D., Guion, R. M. (2015).Essentials of personnel assessment and selection. Routledge. Kumari, N. (2012). A Study of the Recruitment and Selection process: SMC Global.Industrial Engineering Letters,2(1), 34-43. Lin, Y., Hu, X., Wu, X. (2014). Quality of information-based source assessment and selection.Neurocomputing,133, 95-102. Madera, J. M. (2012). Using social networking websites as a selection tool: The role of selection process fairness and job pursuit intentions.International Journal of Hospitality Management,31(4), 1276-1282. Miller, J. K., Guo, G. (2013). Recruitment: international cross-cultural perspective.The Oxford handbook of recruitment. Oxford University Press Inc, London, 402-422. Nikolaou, I. (2014). Social networking web sites in job search and employee recruitment.International Journal of Selection and Assessment,22(2), 179-189. Ployhart, R. E., Kim, Y. (2014). Strategic recruiting.The Oxford handbook of recruitment, 5-20. Ployhart, R. E., Weekley, J. A. (2014). Recruitment and selection in global organizations.The Routledge companion to international human resource management, 155-171. Schmitt, N. (Ed.). (2012).The Oxford handbook of personnel assessment and selection. OUP USA. Swider, B. W., Zimmerman, R. D., Barrick, M. R. (2015). Searching for the right fit: Development of applicant person-organization fit perceptions during the recruitment process.Journal of Applied Psychology,100(3), 880. Faliagka, E., Ramantas, K., Tsakalidis, A., Tzimas, G. (2012, May). Application of machine learning algorithms to an online recruitment system. InProc. International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services. Uggerslev, K. L., Fassina, N. E., Kraichy, D. (2012). Recruiting through the stages: A meta?analytic test of predictors of applicant attraction at different stages of the recruiting process.Personnel Psychology,65(3), 597-660.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Effects of Employee Motivation Level. Answer: Introduction: Motivation is a powerful tool which can reinforce behavior and trigger the tendencies to continue. Employee motivation is crucial for any organization, and plays a major factor in the success of the organization. A well motivated employee is able to perform better, which results in competitive advantage for the company (Combs, et al. 2006). It is often said that the only thing that effects employee motivation is the level of pay, but it is far from truth. In the following parts, a discussion has been carried out to establish that the level is pay is not the only thing affecting the motivation of employees. It is a known phenomenon that the higher a job pays the more satisfied an employee would be (Aziri, 2011). Higher pays are used as a common factor to attain and retain the talents in organizations. Competitive pay rates are used as a frequent strategy by the HR professionals to attract the top talent. In the personal view of the founder of the largest automobile part supplier of the world, Robert Bosch, good wages are not paid because the person has a lot of money; instead the person has a lot of money as a result of paying good wages. So, if the organizations want the employees to be highly productive, as well as, motivated, they have to be pad as per their performance and abilities (Weibel, Rost and Osterloh, 2010). In the work culture, two types of motivations exist, the intrinsic and extrinsic (Premuzic, 2013). Extrinsic motivation deals with the tangible rewards, which includes the pay, along with bonus, and raise in salary. So, the pay, along with money bearing motivators like the raise and bonus, which is in addition to the pay for the employee, acts as a highly motivating factor (Kuvaas, 2006). The more the individual earns the better lifestyle they can attain, and the higher can they climb in the society. Without money, all this is not possible. And this is the reason why employees are attracted towards higher pay scales, and even leave organizations to join the ones, which pay better. But the question begs, is money the sole motivator? Or does money matter that much? A Gallup survey showed that with the increase in salary, the motivation levels do not increase. 30 % of the people, as per this survey, who earned $36,000 per year, were engaged at work. Further, out of those earning in the range of $36,000 and $89,000, only 28% of the individuals were engaged. Lastly, out of the ones earning $90,000 or above this amount, 30% were engaged (Blacksmith and Harter, 2011). So, the engagement levels do not increase with even a rise in 10% of the salary. So, there are factors beyond the pay scale which could help in the achievement of higher engagement levels. The pleasure and joy in doing any task results in intrinsic motivation for the individuals (Hartzell, 2016). When a book is read by a person, they are not paid for reading each and every page. The joy is attained as the story unfolds and the plot is revealed. In the similar manner, the motivation of employees works. If the employee is assigned the tasks which are aligned with their interests and talents, the performance of the employee can be maximized (Sundheim, 2013). The other factor which really motivates the employees is the appreciation and recognition for the work done (Dobre, 2013). According to William James, in the human nature, the deepest desire is to be appreciated. Even if an employee is paid generously, and their efforts are not seen or appreciated, then they would not be motivated (Haizlip, 2008). So, if the employees really are to be motivated, instead of being paid hefty amounts, they have to be commended for their efforts. Along with this achievement is a great motivator. Prizes and awards have the power of harnessing healthy competition, and a healthy competition inspire the individuals in performing better. Also, such awards and prizes form as a reminder for the achievements in a persons career for the lifetime, which brings a sense of accomplishment for the individuals (Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman, 2011). No matter how much a person gets paid, unless they are secure in the job, the employee would not give their best performance (Sundheim, 2013). Often the individuals prefer large and established organizations, for instance Toyota or Microsoft. If the employees are told that they are lucky to have the job, the motivation level would go down, instead the employees should be told that the organization is lucky to have such committed and skilled workforce, so that the employees feel safe and take pride in working with the company. Another contributing factor to the employee motivation is increased responsibilities. Increased responsibility is a way of telling the employee that their work is good and that the employee deserves more and so, is being given a chance to shine. To motivate the employees, the organizations often fill up the vacancies internally, so that the workforce can get a chance to rise and shine. This promotes a culture of development, along with preserving the knowledge of organization, which can then be transferred to the employee, with the rise in the career of the employee (Haizlip, 2008). The working conditions also play a major role in the motivation of an employee. If the employee is given good working conditions, where the workplace is safe, clean, hygienic and sanitary, they would want to work, in comparison to such places which are filthy, unsafe or a walking hazard. These days, the organizations are providing a very comfortable environment for the employees, to come in as they please, in the dresses in which they are comfortable. This is done with the objective of increasing productivity, by removing the formalities from workplace and giving the comfort of home. One of the key examples of such companies is Google, where the employees are provided bean bags to sit on (Wilson, 2012). Team work also plays a contributing factor in employee motivation. If an employee is put in a team which is dysfunctional, it would turn out to be an emotionally draining experience, which would result in lower productivity, lower morale and higher turnovers (Abbah, 2014). An employee is a social being, who wants to be associated with a healthy team, which can provide the necessary help, encouragement, and support. And to achieve this, often the objectives are set which are mutually beneficial for the employees, team and the organization. A working environment where the problems of an employee are seen and ignored turns to be very de-motivating for the employees. The smart managers are aware of this fact, and they know that they are neither therapists nor counselors, but they still make the efforts to recognize and address the personal problems of the employees, which could have an adverse impact over the employees job performance (Ladimeji, 2015). This is one of the reasons for the formulation of Employee Assistance Programs or the Human Resources Department in the organizations, which address and resolve such personal issues of the employees. Along with these factors, the pay can also act as a major de-motivator. It is a common occurrence that due to the increase in pay of one employee, the other employees tend to prejudiced or left out. Research have shown that people are often less motivated in accepting new jobs, when as per their view, the others are paid at higher pay scales for similar position. The pay can also have an adverse impact over the creativity of the employees. Creativity drives the employees in finding better ways of doing the things, and finding out unique approaches. If the employees are motivated solely through the monetary factor, then the interesting factor would be left out of the job (Ladimeji, 2015). Also, the personality type of the people can affect pay as a motivator. As per the study in Journal of Management research, the extrovert employees tend to have positive outlook regarding the pay level. And on the other hand, the ones who score high in areas of openness, conscientiousness and neuroticism were less likely to achieve the satisfaction with the levels of pay (Nielson and Smith, 2014). Similar conclusion was drawn in the study published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (Ladimeji, 2015). So, money is firstly, not the sole motivator for the employees, and secondly, plays a role of being a potent de-motivator. For an employee, money could play a role in selecting or continuing with a job, but in the long run, money is not everything. The employee needs things like appreciations, rewards, job satisfaction, healthy competition, cooperative team, feeling of involvement and increased reasonability, to feel successful and content with the job. If the employees are not content with their job, the productivity would never increase and the organization would not be able to succeed. Moreover, the creativity is hampered due to money restraints, which could otherwise result in discovery of efficient ways to doing the things. To conclude, the thesis statement is quite correct and money is not the sole factor which motivates the employees. There are a number of factors which have to be present for the employees, and pay is just one of those motivators. References Abbah, M.T. (2014) Employee Motivation: The Key to Effective Organizational Management in Nigeria. 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