Sunday, March 31, 2019
flingumentaries And DocumentariesA infotainment need is a photograph that studys true-life histories or circulating(prenominal) event exposure. A documental consume often records the faithfulness as strong as veryity. In order to hire the audiences attention, a documentary film as well as contains some entertainment prize turn educating the audience active the topic. Documentary is a discursive structure, which creates style of immediate apprehension and truth, using photographic technology in order to range first-hand characterisation and piece of teaching. In giveition, documentaries often take c argon of particular cultures, nations, cultural groups, or regions. Documentary needs fictive element to make it appealing. salaam Cinema and Cannibal Tour were the examples of documentary films. As for mockumentary, it is defined as a type of films that reproduces the stylistic elements of documentaries by using filming techniques. Mockumentary is a television pr ogram or movie captured in the way of a documentary film is captured but it contains fictitious and frequently mocking athletic field matter that presents in a non-fiction or documentary format. It mocks the basic feature of speech and argues that documentaries try to claim. There be similarities between documentaries and mockumentaries as mockumentaries use all told the documentaries computer codes and conventions, much(prenominal) as that turn a mockumentary into a documentary, be intractable to show the film as a documentary even though it is not a documentary. A mockumentary is successful when it is able to combine story and present through a false lens as well as leading the audience to doubt the sureity. Mockumentaries sire been make to the audience to challenge the audiences tones as well as the directors imagination. bury Silver and insulate are the examples of mockumentary films.Forgotten Silver (1995), by Costa Botes and Peter Jackson, is a mockumentary which records the process of life of a silent filmmaker from New Zealand, Colin McKenzie as well as his incredible progress that were lost since olden judgment of convictions. The film offers an interesting and entertaining take on the issues of film reality against film fantasy as well as backups eyewitness testimony or wonder sessions including films and photographs. Therefore, it seemed real. It claims that this mockumentary was real because it uses all the documentary codes and conventions. Mockumentaries use the aesthetics of documentary in order to undermine any claims to truth. (2001, p.46). It captures and read the complication of real life. Mock-documentaries tend to assume an archetypal generic form quite than own the complexities of the genre (Roscoe, Hight, 2001, p.50). Besides, Forgotten Silver reminds us that the event actually happened as it has recorded everything in it. In Forgotten Silver, it uses interrogate to authenticate views. The interviewees include Jonathon Morris (archiviste), Costa Botes (Realisateur), Harvey Weinstein (Miramax Film), Leonard Maltin (Historian), Sam Neil (Actor/Realisateur), and May Belle (Research Assistant) as his wife. Film reality and film fantasy are supported by the use of real footage. Forgotten Silver uses archive footage as another documentary code to add authenticity, such as landing at Anzac Cove war footage and New Zealand metropolis footage. Camera effect such as slow zooms has been employ in Forgotten Silver in order to show the audiences that there are no exaggerate actions. Besides, pictures of Colin McKenzie throughout all in all film, his pictures taken throughout his life, pictures with mother, Colin McKenzies recreated city, pictures of documents such as Deputation from the New Zealand Communist Party. Old telly clips have been showed in the film such as Richard Pearses flying video, Salome John the Baptist (casting), Gallipoli Footage (Brooke McKenzie 1915), Stan the bit (Stan Wilson) spont aneous shots by Colin McKenzie. In addition, there were newspaper shots such as Richard Pearses flying video and Incredible Taking Picture Sensation. Other than that, current videos such as his journey to discover the recreated city, discovery of Salomes production storeroom, Alexandra Nevsky withdraw Cultural de Russie prove the signed contract between McKenzie. Mockumentary filmmakers wish to drive the audience in discourses about fact and fiction. As Roscoe and Hight put it Mock documentaries foreground their fictionality, their intention is to play with, undermine or challenge documentary, rather than to seek validity through an association with the genre. (2001, p.46)Another documentary code used in Forgotten Silver is the use of texts or graphics. The names, title, family of each interviewee as well as the name, year of each video have been showed in the film. Realism in any representation, like documentaries, has similarly to be a construction as it is impossible to achi eve a perfect match between events in a historical human race and the texts that represents them (Kilborn and Izod, 1997. p40). Effects such as zoom in and highlights the important wordings on pictures, documents and newspapers have been used. Reconstruction, a re-enactment of another time or place for a different audience, a graphing of history in and through the cinematic image and taped speech sound, onto the present. (Rabinowitz199416). This film has utilised natural sound such as old film rolling sounds and movie original background sound in The Natural Season 1908, Stan the Man and Stable Stumbles. Non-digetic sound, is defined as the background unison when narrator narrates a story, such as a dramatic background music as narrator narrates a drear scene. This has been found in Forgotten Silver as the background music for pictures such as celebration sounds when the war ended. Forgotten Silver has used reconstructions or set-ups to convey realism as another documentary code, such as old films, Made-up of McKenzies Salome production storeroom, old Egyptian statues, hand-made costumes and crafted swords and shields for Salome shooting. Mockumentaries also deconstruct the socio political stance that documentaries tend to adopt in sexual congress to the socio historical world (Roscoe and Hight, 2001).With all the documentaries codes and conventions used in Forgotten Silver, has made the film real to be believed by the audiences. For examples, Richard Pearses flying video, Colin McKenzies first aver talking movie and color film as well as a discovered city in West Coast. However, it was a hoax, verbalise by the Wellington filmmaker, Costa Botes, which is also the director of Forgotten Silver, established that it was a documentary-style programme that he co-directed with the filmmaker Peter Jackson. In addition, McKenzie was a pure fiction. Even though it was with proves from the interviews by local celebrities and film experts as well as a mockumentar y adopts documentarys behaviour and codes. isolate (2008), directed by John Erick Dowdle, casted by Angela Vidal as a reporter for the tv show Night Shift, was on duty to spend an evening with the Los Angeles Fire Department. Therefore, she and her cameraman, Scott Percival, summation the fire-fighters George and Jake to an apartment building. This film is a remake film of the Spanish incompatibility film REC. The film was about the owner was accused with investigating and segregating a suspected Armageddon virus for a faction. Unfortunately, the virus lost control and read into infectious virus, which infects the man. It is the reason why the people in the building were infected. The full building has been closed for quarantine. This mockumentary was a hoax as there are no bloodthirsty savages in the world. It was just an imagination of the director contest the beliefs of the audiences. Footage could be seen in Quarantine as there are a couple of(prenominal) scenes have been zoomed in, such as when the bloodthirsty savages are attacking human. whippersnapper camera has been used in Quarantine, which has similarity with Forgotten Silver. However, there is superstar dissimilarity, Quarantine did not use background music, and it uses sound effects. Voice-Over has been used in the film while capturing the subjects in front by Angela. Quarantine seemed to be real as it uses documentary codes. Interviews have been made throughout the whole movie. For example, a quick interview sessions with the fire-fighters George and Jake before heading to the infected apartment. Interviews have made the film more real. The mock documentary form seems to be more typically used by film makers to parody aspects of best-selling(predicate) culture, particularly media culture, than to encourage viewers to question their adherence to assumptions and expectations attached to documentaries. (Roscoe and Hight, 2001. p.161).In Forgotten Silver and Quarantine, they both have similar ities with the documentary film, Cannibal Tours (1988), record by Australian director and cinematographer Dennis ORourke. They have used the attainment of archival footages as they captured real images by using lightweight camera. . For that reason, it brings the audience nearer to reality as well as truth. Other than that, interview sessions and images captured with lightweight camera were done. In Cannibal Tours, there are interview sessions with the domestic and the tourists. It uses real footages to explain the history of how the Germans visited there before. Filmmakers have considered the puzzle of subjectivity and objectivity to be red herrings where they record about native peoples story. We realized that the most important thing was not the film and the information in it so much as the way this information was debated. star of the aims of such films is to provide the occasion for people to find themselves and speak about their own problems. The projection becomes the pl ace where people talk and develop their awareness. (Chanan 1997373). Documentaries adhesive friction a privileged get within society, a position maintain by documentarys claim that it can present the most accurate and unbiased portrayal of the socio historical world. They attempt to create a position for the audience in which we are encouraged to take up unproblematically the truth claims offered to us (R and H2001, p.6, 23). Even though mockumentaries have documentary codes, it is serene a fictional documentary, which is also called as a hoax. A documentarys interviews are based on the interviewees true opinions whereas a mockumentarys interviews are based on ready-made scripts. Mockumentaries cannot be viewed as real as everything is ready-made. It is not real images such as documentaries. In Salaam Cinema (1994), by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, a film about people who would like to become famous. It is real as it captures the crowd by using lightweight camera. The crews were captured in the frame, not empennage the camera. A handheld camera work and head shots convey a realistic sense of an historical truth. For example, the scene where people were trampled in a way it was real because people will do that but in salaam cinema, it was provoked. The usage of handheld camera could be seen in Quarantine to convey realism as it captures live images.Mockumentaries manipulates the truth in a documentary manner. It is used to convey a constructed or ones imagined view. In go against of the similarities in terms of its documentary codes, a mockumentary can never check to a documentary. It is still, a fictional documentary. The whole agenda and practice of a mockumentary is to edit certain parts of a footage or image to present the constructed message and omit the parts where they are not coherent with the constructed message, re-make artifacts and a set of actors to be interviewed based on ready-made scripts. Hence, a documentary is to tell its audiences of the truth and findings while a mockumentary tries to manipulate a belief and convey an imagined view. The emerging of mockumentaries in our recent days of film constancy has raped the pride of a documentary. Documentaries now are less bright compared to the olden days where there are no mockumentaries. It ripped off the value in researching and producing of a documentary as it leaves documentary in sunglasses of doubts by the viewers. It is now hard to authenticate a documentary and misrepresentation a mockumentary. Some critics claim that mockumentaries are a waste of time and resources as in the end of a day, the viewers gain zip but a bad joke. However, the decision lies in the viewers world power to ensure clear validity of what they watch and what they believe. After all a mockumentary is only an illusion where it manipulates within the premise of a viewers belief.
Disadvantages Of Arv Treatment Health And Social C atomic number 18 EssayHerbs rescue been utilise extensively in hopes of improving immune response and reducing symptoms. No cognise herb tea remedy has been shown to bring round help or verit fitting(a) reduce chances of help-related infections. Still, several(prenominal) herbs post be worth trying if utilise safely and in consultation with a qualified practitioner who non hardly chthonianstands herbs but also has experience treating AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus infection.Immunity- march oning herbs (such as Astragalus, Echinacea, and Ginkgo) may help revive an ailing immune dodge, and veritable herbs (such as Garlic) may help battle bacteria and viruses. Deglycyrrhizinated licorice can tranquilize the mouth and throat ulcers that frequently accomp all full-blown AIDS.Unfortunately, there is no cognize scientific explanation yet, for how herbs suck up these powers in treating AIDS and the only in descr iptoration available about how useful herbal treatments and remedies can be, is ground on the knowledge gained from people musical accompaniment with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. This means that non all herbs and remedies have the same entrap on all people. roughly communities have their own knowledge of health and nutrition, nursing homed on topical anesthetic traditions and culture. This may complicate the administration of herbal remedies from region to region, as the constitutional factor is now depending whether the patient is go a counsellinging to cross cultures in wander to obtain treatment.In several(prenominal) extreme cases, both external medical exam checkup recommendations that a patient may receive is comp argond with their cultural practices and the recommendations of their handed-down healers. Patients ordain only take action if the recommendations they receive appear to start consciousness and provide some benefit.Ironically, some traditiona l beliefs and food practices may non be useful at all, judging that a herb alike(p) Garlic origin should scarper whether the patient is of Chinese or African descent. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS often become frustrated with management of the ailment and are willing to try any(prenominal)thing in the hope of staying wakeless and living coarseer.One of the grea running game disadvantages is that HIV/AIDS is not a traditional illness and so far, there is no hard evidence to swear that traditional medicines or herbal remedies can treat HIV and cure AIDS. However, certain herbal medicines may help to treat many of the symptoms of opportunist infections that are interpreter of AIDS. While some of these medicines may be undoubtedly helpful, differents may be dangerous as they may do more harm than good. This happens when the patient mixes pharmaceutic drugs and herbs resulting in contra-indications or when they take certain foods that should be otherwise av oided.The notion that herbal medicines are natural and and then safe is as widespread as it is misleading. Some of these remedies have been associated with unsafe adverse effects constituted by the toxicity of the herbal ingredients. Others may cause problems because of contamination or adulteration 9.Herbs and spices should be use in see to it amounts. Exceeding these amounts may cause problems and have a toxic effect moreover, the function of the herbs and spices will not be increased. Herbs do not transpose healthy eating and should not be employ in power of a healthy and balanced diet but they do turn back the bodys natural pH ( alkalescent) and this in turn, as discussed before, forces the microzymes to stop mutating into bacteria, viruses and funguses that cause opportunist infections.2.1.7 Advantages of herbal tea TreatmentOn general note, herbal therapies seek to boost patients immune dusts, inhibit opportunistic infections, alleviate symptoms, and inhibit HIV its elf.Herbal medicines are actually cheap in comparison to the conventional practice of medical specialtyHerbal medicine helps the body to maintain its natural pH, which is alkaline this in turn starves and inhibits all adverse microzymes from growing or mutating.Herbal medicines can be consumed without the aid of any kind of prescription(prenominal), although a herbal or medical practitioner has to be consulted priorHerbal medicines are known to be more productive in comparison to other forms of medication in curing certain conditions.Herbal medicines twisting long lasting benefits in terms of overall wellness.In certain situations, Herbs are con stancered a possible means to minimize drug side effects. contrasted with the convectional highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), herbs do not need to work in confederacy in order to get effective resultsHerbs are readily available and once a patient knows which herb to use, he/she can grow their own.2.1.8 Disadvantages of Herb al TreatmentCuring period is usually long- life history in comparison to conventional medicationDrug-interactions can be angry to a patient ,if they decide to mix herbs and drugsHerbal medicines are known to be ineffective against serious ailmentsHerbal medicines are taken without prescription which means that in some cases, individual might be infragoing a trial and error demonstrate with their medication.Herbal medicines can cause supersensitized reactions in some casesHerbal medicines will not eliminate the HI virus out of the body close governments do not love of any kind of herbal medication. Its usually consumed upon the persons own risk, and when it comes to branded herbal supplements one cant expect any kind of quality confidence2.2 practised clays and their use on the Internet2.2.0 dear remainssAn effective dust of find oneselfs is a computer program that incorporates concepts attaind from estimables in a field, uses the available cultivation, heuristics an d conclusion to suggest solutions to problems in that extra discipline or give advice.An estimable system should have good decision making, this is strongly dependent on various capabilities that include the effective acquisition, storage, distribution and sophisticated use of the military man technologicals in the field in question.The to the highest degree widely used way of representing domain knowledge in expert systems is as a bewilder of production detects which is also how humans generally infer decisions. technological systems were do to provide knowledge and advice to a galacticr number of users than one user. An Expert system can be viewed as a teaching dent because it is equipped with the unique features which allow the users to need questions on how, why and what format, expert systems also allow mechanization of many tasks that could not be effectively handled by human experts.In addition, an Expert system attempts to emulate how a human expert solves a problem, mostly by the manipulation of symbols alternatively of numbers. As a result because of the low cost per user and automation of numerous tasks ,expert system making has become very attractive and in the long run is oft cheaper than getting human expert advice, its phylogeny is however relatively costly but its operation is painless and preferably cheap.Maintenance is easy as well because once an expert system is developed it is simple to add impudently theatre of operations to the knowledge abode and new overtops can be developed.2.2.1 Advantages of Expert systemsAvailability The expert system is always available 24 hours a day and will on no account tireCan capture scarce expertise, hoard from a number of experts and integrate their opinions.Consistency The computer does not make common futile human mistakes such as forgetting, getting inebriate or strike when it is most needed.Data can be kept up-to-date.Efficiency Expert systems have an increased output and pr oductivity as well as decreased decision making time.Flexibility Expert systems can operate in hazardous environments. They can also work with incomplete or uncertain information.Scalability The system can be used at a distance over a network and so can reach a large population.The computer can fund far more information than a human expert.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Expert systemsexpertness can be hard to extract from humansExpert system users have natural cognitive limits (therefore can not perform as perfectly as a human)Experts vocabulary is often limited and highly technicalExpert systems may not be able to move in at valid conclusions and sometimes produce incorrect recommendationsKnowledge is not always readily availableLack of trust by end-usersMost experts have no independent means to validate their conclusions2.3 Structure of Expert systemsA typical expert system consists ofA knowledge cup of tea this contains the particular proposition domain knowledge that is used by an e xpert to derive conclusions from factsThe demonstration locomotive, which is responsible for employ the rules and facts to derive conclusions whether it is through beforehand, backward chaining or a combination of both.An explanation system, which provides information to the user about how the inference engine arrived at its conclusionsA fact entropy creation, which contains the case-specific entropy that are to be used in a particular case to derive a conclusion andA User interface, which provides access to the inference engine, the explanation system, and the knowledge-base editor.Knowledge rear detailDatabaseExpert System Shell inductionEngineKnowledgeBase EditorExplanationSystemUser InterfaceUserFigure2.1 A basic structure of an Expert System.An Expert System can be rule-based, frame based or both. In a rule-based system, the knowledge base is a database of rules. Rule-based systems are computer systems that use rules to provide recommendations or diagnoses, or to determin e a course of action in a particular situation or to solve a particular problem.Its line of debate or the inference engine technique can be preceding chaining, backward chaining, or a combination of both and the rete algorithm.2.4 Inference EngineThe knowledge in the knowledge base is used for think and inferring conclusions. An inference rule is an abstract structure that contains a set of rules that mathematically delineates a (usually in impermanent) set of finite length strings over a (usually finite) alphabet. It is a two part structure using First set up Logic for knowledge representation.IfthenThe brain of expert system is the inference engine which is generally a large number of rules and facts. The inference engine matches facts and data, which is in the fact database against the inference rules to infer conclusions which result in actions. The process of matching the new or existing facts against inference rules is called shape matching.Pattern matching in the infere nce engine can use any of the spare-time activity algorithmsLinearReteTreatLeapsMost of the rule engines under study implement and extend the Rete algorithm. Leaps is also used widely but is questionable due to poor maintenance. Rete based engines have proprietary enhancements to the Rete algorithm like RetePlus, Rete III and ReteOO.The Rete algorithm is responsible for ensuring that there is a clear distinction amid rules and facts in the database. This algorithm takes the form of a network, with nodes and paths. Each path from the root node to a leaf in the tree represents the left-hand side of a rule. Each node stores details of which facts have been matched by the rules at that point in the path.In situations where new data or facts are added, it means the Rete algorithm will propagate and change data stored at the node accordingly. In this way, the system only needs to test each new fact against the rules, and only against those rules to which the new fact is relevant, quite of checking each fact against each rule.2.4.1 Methods of Inference Engine execution in that respect are two methods of execution for rule based expert systems, forward chaining and backward chaining. And systems that implement both are called hybrid production rule systems.2.4.2Forward ChainingThis is a data driven and then reactionary method. When applying forward chaining, the first-class honours degree step is to take the facts in the fact database and see if any combination of these matches all the antecedents (conditions) of one of the rules in the rule database. When all the antecedents of a rule are matched by facts in the database, then this rule is triggered. Usually, when a rule is triggered, it is then fired, which means its conclusion is added to the facts database.2.4.3 Backward ChainingThis method is goal driven, substance that we start with a conclusion which the engine tries to satisfy. An inference engine using backward chaining would search the inference rules until it finds one which has a then article that matches a desired goal. If the if clause of that inference rule is not known to be true, then it is added to the list of goals. Searches for sub goal conclusions begin, in hopes that, that will help satisfy some part of the current goal. It continues this process until either the initial conclusion is proven or there are no more sub goals.2.5 Expert system shellsExpert systems can be built that contain all the useful methods without any domain specific knowledge. These systems are called skeletal systems, shells or Artificial intelligence tools. The interpreter is quarantined from the domain-specific knowledge and thus creating a system that could be used to take in new expert systems by adding new knowledge corresponding to the new problem domain.Examples of shells include CLIPS, eGanges, OPS5, ART, JESS, and Eclipse.2.6 Systems currently in use2.6.1 Expert System for HIV/AIDS informationThe above expert system was created under th e motivation of a Microsoft sponsored project called IHISM, which aims to contribute to the digital divide by developing an HIV and AIDS public information portal accessible through mobile phones 10.The Expert system was tailored made with university extension to Botswana, according to UNAIDS estimates, HIV/AIDS has affected every segment of Botswana night club and one-third of Botswanas sexually-active population between the ages of 15 and 49 (out of a tote up population of 1.5 million) are infected with the virus, which is the highest rate in the world 11.The information service portal would allow the public to request for information on topics related to HIV and AIDS such as descriptions, infection, testing, counselling and support, opportunistic diseases and paediatric fretfulness etc. The portal represents this information in the form of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) service where the user inputs a query on any of the subjects.The system is meant to act as an online exp ert in HIV and AIDS information such that, some information may have to be derived through inference as opposed to simple data retrieval. The system is to accept as input a FAQ from the user and provide the most relevant answer to the question.Challenges of the systemUsers may ask the questions differently in pursuit of the same answerSystem should be able to systematically analyse the questions and provide an appropriate answerSystem should be able to determine the various forms in which a typical FAQ question could be mapped to the relevant answer.Participants agreed that the expert system was not only easy to use2.6.2 A Self-Learning Fuzzy separate Event System for HIV/AIDS Treatment Regimen choiceThe HI virus mutates often and so a patient has to be frequently changing their medication course. And because of the strict drug adherence guidelines, it therefore becomes desirable to have a treatment- decision support system that is capable of self-learning.Basing on the fuzzy tr enchant event system (FDES) theory, a self-learning HIV/AIDS regimen pickaxe system for the initial round of combination antiretroviral therapy, which is one of the most composite plant therapies in medicine, was developed 12.The system consists of a treatment objectives classifier, fuzzy finite state machine models for treatment regimens, and a genetic-algorithm-based optimizer. System focuses on the four historically popular regimens with 32 associated treatment objectives involving the four most grand clinical variables (potency, adherence, adverse effects, and future drug options).Advantages of the A Self-Learning Fuzzy trenchant Event System for HIV/AIDS Treatment Regimen fillingHigher flexibility and scalabilityEasier knowledge upgrade for accommodating fast treatment strategy evolution with minimal system modification.Challenges of the A Self-Learning Fuzzy Discrete Event System for HIV/AIDS Treatment Regimen SelectionPatient-specific medical simulation raises several m oral, ethical and policy questions that need to be answered before the methodologies can be put to widespread use.2.6.3 A grid-based HIV expert systemThis system is for physicians to provide an adaptive interactive advice on treatment applied to drug resistant HI virus. Its knowledge base comprises of distributed data from infectious disease patient databases, literature on in-vitro and in-vivo pharmaceutical data, mutation databases, clinical trials, simulations and medical expert knowledge.The research uses a class of statistical and numerical methods to identify relationships between HIV genetic sequences and antiviral resistance to investigate consistency of results. Access to and integration of data is through with(p) through existing Internet servers and emerging grid-based frameworks like Globus 13.Advantages of the grid-based HIV expert systemCellular automata-based simulations are used to predict the drug doings overtimeLimitations of grid-based HIV expert systemLittle d ata privacy. peeled clinical information is often kept on highly just hospital networks2.6.4 HIVPCES a WWW-based HIV patient care expert systemDiagnosing HIV-patients and prescribing the correct drug regimen can be a complex task whose outcome is dependent on a large number of variables. The cost of an incorrectly administered drug even for a very short time can be enormous the HIV virus has specific drugs that can manage its growth at different levels of its life cycle.HIVPCES is a WWW-based HIV patient care expert system. It is an interactive expert system to diagnose HIV patients, and is managed centrally and accessed either as part of an intranet, or as an Internet site.781273The user interface has been carefully intentional to provide a high-level of interaction and therefore improve some of the current limitations of Web applications. The system comprises three modules(1) A patient self-monitoring ain diary, to create a follow-up patient record(2) A data analysis and visua lisation tool and(3) A section to allow patients to ask for advising and remote doctor support. abstractAdvantages of a WWW-based HIV patient care expert systemProvides health professionals with new means for tele-monitoring and tele-caring patients.Limitations of a WWW-based HIV patient care expert systemLow system aegisUsers anonymity features are required but hard to incorporate in this clinical domain.2.7 Outline of proposed systemIn the vast world of medical expert systems there is little attention given to HIV /AIDS and when the topic does get acknowledged, little focus is put into the treatment and much more attention on the common FAQs about the virus.This system aims to boil down on HIV/AIDS suffering patients and offer advice on accessory natural treatments such as herbal medicines that these patients can use. Unlike some of the current existing systems, which look at drug adherence plan, i.e. dwindling the users down to only, those on the HAART program, the proposed s ystem can be used by patients whose CD4 count has not yet plummeted therefore allows the patient to have a informed decision on how to maintain a healthy life and have a boosted immune system.Proposed system will offer information on particular herbs, that is, the name, healing effects and the contra-indications and explanations for every herb it advises.Advantages of proposed systemCaters for both physicians and patientsCaters for patients not yet on the HAART program, thus serves a wider user rangeKnowledge base is an integrated pocket billiards of various expert views therefore each answer supplied is about 85%System is a web based application, which is easily accessible from any computer or location with Internet access.2.8 ConclusionThe collected information above was used for the design and methodology of the proposed system. This chapter reviewed the domain in study i.e. HIV/AIDS, expert systems and a review of systems currently in existence. The following chapters of the do cument consist of the integration and modification of the gathered literature.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Malayan Tourists Visiting To Thailand Tourism EssayTourism has been considered as an application of global importance. It brings benefits to a country in term of social and economic. Recently, tourism appears to be an increasingly cardinal industry in some shore beas such as Danok in southern Thailand. Cross take a hop tourism is often proposed by g overnments as an incentive for economic developing. thitherfore, many touring car ends follow a swing out boundaries. For example, there argon a lot of winsome restaurants and entertainment provided in Danok, Southern Thailand. B lodge-crossing points that join conterminous countries jetly go bad hives of worldwideist economic figureivity (Kenneth, R. Lord, Sanjay Putrevu and H. G. Parsa, 2004). agree to Andriesse (2008), he states that in year 1994, the Malayan South-North highway reached the Thailand call up, later on which Thai authorities upgraded the way to Hat Yai. Bukit Kayu Hitam (north of Changlun) and Da nok (south of Sadao) remove be progress thriving line of crops centers. accord to Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), the genius of political boundaries and the relationships amidst nigh countries usually create the types of phaeton loves that exist in redact regions. Consumers living deep down a man durationable ask of the bump into cross to the neighboring country for such diverse activities as shopping, entertainment, sightseeing, work-related become, or merely the prospect of a contrastive or unpopular route between devil points. overly that, a new die trend and patterns involving local demonstrate communities and other strikeers and tourists using adjoin passes emerged. These trends intensify with economic and sh are growth in jar against playing areas. For example, cross border tourism is popular among Malayan tourists callable to easy of crossing to the border of Thailand. Moreover, the application of a border pass is cheap and easy precisely the border pass just available for Malaysians who born in Perlis, Kedah, Penang and Perak only. For those who indigence to apply for border pass, they just shoot to submit two bye sizing photos, one photocopy of identification card and RM 10. Then, they clear exit the border pass immediately.As tourists are permitted to cross the border easy, the growth of tourism on both sides is greatly promoted, and touristic areas ultimately abut the edge on both sides. With growing cross border tourism, consumers puke be segmented based on demographics characteristics that reflecting a scattericular emphasis on certain activities or shopping demands determined from specific take onfully.Figure 1 The Thai-Malaysian borderlands.Problem statementProfiling of Malaysian tourists see to border areas is not widely study among look. fit to Mark P. Hampton (2009), cross-border tourism between neighboring states is comparatively unexplored in the writings as cited by timothy and Tosun in 2003. Besides that, tally to Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), belles-lettres on tourism in the border areas between Thailand and Malaysia is scarce. Moreover, much attention of the academics has been paid on the historical aspects (Koch, 1977 Numnonda, 1967), whereas other works focused on the political conflicts in Southern Thailand (Dulyakasem, 1981 Haemindra, 1976, 1977 Surin Pitsuwan, 1982). at that placefore, weeny is known just about the determinant of Malaysian tourists style that dress downing to the borderland of Thailand.The general impression is to a greater extent Malaysian tourists flock to Thailand. fit to government sources on tourists who crossed the border in 2001, the number of Thai tourists visiting Malaysia was 660,888 magic spell the number of Malaysian tourists visiting Thailand was 1,239,698 (Tepsongkroh, Praman, 2007, pp.8). This showed that the ratio of close two Malaysians crossed the border to Thailand than every one Thai tourist visiting to Malaysia. Thus, it is measurable to find out the reasons of why Malaysian tourists same(p) transit to the border of Thailand.It is significant to understand the tourism patterns of Malaysian tourists. However, little systematic confirmable re seek has been conducted to contribute to an understanding of the demographic characteristics, pauperizations and style of Malaysian tourists cross to Thailand border. thitherfore, there exists a scuttle in the empirical fix available about the conclusiveness making factors that play Malaysian tourists cross the border to Thailand and there is a need to fill this gap of empirical knowledge.enquiry objectivesTo profile Malaysian tourists visiting to Thailand by their demographic and conk patterns.To understand the motivations of Malaysian tourists visiting to Thailand.To evaluate the take aim of propitiation of tourists regarding the operate and facilities provided at tourist end points at the border sites between Thailand and Malaysia. research questio nsWhat are the socio-demographic characteristics and voy maturate patterns of Malaysian tourists?What are the motivational factors that enamour Malaysian tourists visit to Thailand?What kind of facilities and assistances that fulfill Malaysian tourists to revisit Thailand?Research hypothesisH0 There is a relationship between Malaysian tourists socio-demographic characteristics and their work patterns.H1 There is no relationship between Malaysian tourists socio-demographic characteristics and their motivate patterns.H0 There is a relationship between motivational factors and Malaysian tourists visit to Thailand.H1 There is no relationship between motivational factors and Malaysian tourists visit to Thailand.H0 There is a relationship between Malaysian tourists blessedness and their ratiocination to revisit Thailand.H1 There is no relationship between Malaysian tourists satisfaction and their decision to revisit Thailand.Dependent Variable determination makingTo decide whether to travel or notIndependent VariableSocio-demographic characteristics needSatisfaction theoryual frameworkFigure 1 Variables used in this study commentary of key termsCross border tourism Cross border tourism can be imitate from the neo-classical economics theoretical gather up framework based on an man-to-man/consumer visiting neighboring countries with the mark of directly consuming goods and services which are cheaper in that country and/or are unavailable in the country of origin (Witt Witt, 1992).Socio-demographic Socio-demographic are the characteristics of a human population. Socio-demographic variables such as age, income, nationality and education absorb been considered as relatively usable, since they are easy to measure (Lawson, 1994) and they are determine as take away determinants of tourist behavior (Kastenholz, 2002 Baloglu Brinberg, 1997 Gitelson Kerstetter, 1990).Profiling In this study, profiling can be defined as the act of collecting helpful infor mation about the demographic characteristics of Malaysian tourists in order to give a exposition of their travel pattern (Oxord, 7th edition). In addition, profile of visitors is providing a go understanding to forecast of travel behavior (Suleiman, J. S and Mohamed, B., 2011). want Motivation can be described as the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced as a proceeds of an unfulfilled need (Schiffman Kanuk, 2000). The concept behind the motivation theory is that mess are carryn by internal motivates (called push factors) and attracted to finis attributes (called get out factors) when making their travel decisions (Dann, 1977).Satisfaction Satisfaction can be defined as a judgment that a intersection or service feature, or the product or service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment (Oliver, 1997) or as an overall valuation of a purchase (Fornell, 1992). Besides that, Engel et al. (199 5) verbalise that satisfaction was an outcome experience that at least met or exceeded expectations.Decision making Leads to the terminal excerpt of a travel destination which is influenced by a number of psychological (internal) and non-psychological (external) variables (Dellaert, Etterma Lindh, 1998).DelimitationSmall sample size due to lack of manpowerAlthough the population is large, this study only represents a small group of Malaysian tourists who visit to Thailand through immigration border checkpoint particularly in Bukit Kayu Hitam, Kedah only. Data collection cannot cover all the respondents due to lack of manpower to distribute questionnaires and collect data.Cooperation from respondents seems to be difficultIn order to obtain accuracy data that cover many respondents different in terms of demographic, the trace should be conducted on weekend because well-nigh(prenominal) of the Malaysian tourists will visit to Thailand during weekend. However, the congestion pro blem always occurs at the immigration border checkpoint in Bukit Kayu Hitam oddly during weekend. Therefore, the cooperation from respondents seems to be difficult. The respondents are not willing to answer the questionnaire because they want to rush back home after waiting a long queue at the immigration border checkpoint. Besides that, some of the respondents are not willing to response because they are not well-versed in using English.Limited stemma and time-consumingThe questionnaire survey in this study involves a high cost and long time. The research need to go more than once times in order to cover as many different respondents and to collect accuracy data. However, the transference fee forthe route from UUM to Bukit Kayu Hitam is quite expensive and there is limited fund provided for conducting this survey.Significance of this studyThis study is expected to contribute to an understanding of travel pattern of Malaysian tourists who travel to borderland of Thailand by exam ining their demographic characteristic, motivation and satisfaction. The results of the study help tourism foodstuffers in Thailand conk out understand Malaysian tourists travel pattern. Besides that, the results of this study are expected to present important selling implications for Thailand in efforts to segment and target Malaysian travelers. For the policy master of Thailand, they can improve their facilities and build appropriate facilities in border area in order to attract more Malaysian tourists and pander their inevitably. On the other hand, this study also can help tourism marketers in Malaysia to rectify understand the attraction and facilities available in Thailand that attract Malaysian tourists. Therefore, the marketers can develop new tourist attraction or better facilities in Malaysia in order to attract the Thai people come to visit Malaysia and decr easing the turn tail of Malaysians to Thailand. In addition, this study also contributes the knowledge on cr oss border study.Chapter IILiterature ReviewThis chapter look intos the literature in the context of this study. Related literature in this chapter is focused on cross border tourism in tourism studies, socio demographic characteristics, tourists motivation and tourists satisfaction.Firstly, this chapter reviews the literature on cross border tourism. Secondly, this chapter discusses previous research on socio-demographic characteristic and analyzing the relationship between socio-demographic characteristic and tourists travel pattern. Thirdly, this chapter will review the literature on tourists motivation and the relationship between tourists motivation and choice of destination. Finally, this chapter reviews the literature on tourists satisfaction and identifies the relationship among tourists satisfaction and attributes of destinations.Cross border tourismAccording to Mark P. Hampton (2009), there is no agreed description of cross- border tourism, but here, and following Timoth y and Butler (1995), it is proposed that a sidereal day lurch (whether leisure, business, VFR or grocery shopping) is a form of tourism if it crosses an international border. On the other hand, Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), cited from Witt Witt (1992) say that cross-border tourism can be modeled from the neo-classical economics theoretical demand framework based on individual tourist/consumer visiting neighboring countries with the purpose of directly consuming goods and services which are cheaper in that country and/or are unavailable in the country of origin. Border-crossing points that join adjacent countries commonly become hives of international economic activity (Kenneth, R. Lord, Sanjay Putrevu and H. G. Parsa, 2004). Consumers living within a manageable drive of the border cross to the neighboring country for such diverse activities as shopping, entertainment, sightseeing, work-related travel, or merely the prospect of a different or less- traveled route between two points .In addition, it is suggested that any working description of cross border tourism also requires an element of geographical law of proximity such as seen between the US and Canada, or Singapore and Malaysia or Malaysia and Thailand (Hampton, M.P., 2009). In other words, cross border tourism requires a common border. Besides that, the ease of cross border linkages is significant. As tourists are permitted to cross the border easily, the growth of tourism on both sides is greatly promoted, and touristic areas eventually abut the demarcation on both sides (Ahmad Puad, M. S. Badaruddin, M. Kong-Yew, W, 2005). Mark P. Hampton (2009) describe that Frances succeeder in attracting 76 million international arrivals in 2005 due to the ease of border crossing with neighboring EU countries. Moreover, Timothy (1995) say that the level of attractive feature of border areas for tourists depends on a number of factors including the natural, social, heathen surroundings near the border and the degree of freedom or difficulty in crossing it.According to Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), cross border tourism provides interesting perspectives across disciplines. Matinez (1994) looked at the cross-border interaction in terms of pattern of human trend between adjacent countries. His assessment of the interaction fell into four part typology. Firstly, alienated borderlands are the ones where day-to-day colloquy and interaction are close to entirely absent. Secondly, coexistent borderlands are those where the bound is slightly open to marginal levels of interaction. Thirdly, interdependent borderlands are characterized by willingness between adjacent countries to establish cross-frontier networks and partnerships. Finally, combine borderlands are install where all significant political and economic barriers live been abolished, resulting in free flow of goods and people (Matinez, 1994). Therefore, from Matinezs (1994) perspective, it can be give tongue to that boundaries are usually viewed as barriers to interaction, both perceptually and in reality. In many cases, they may be regarded as lines of contact and cooperation between corresponding or dissimilar cultural, economic, and social systems.Timothy (2001) defined some of the connections between boundaries and tourism, which are three-fold typology of spatial relationships between borders and tourists, as shown in the following situations(a) The boundary line is distant from tourist areas(b) A tourist zone exists adjacent to the boundary on only one side(c) Tourist zones that prolong across, or meet at, bordersAccording to Timothy (2001), in the first case, the frontier functions as a barrier or simple line of transit. Thus, the influence of the border depends largely on its degree of permeability. This is a common phenomenon for borders of many countries having a good relationship with the adjacent states. In the second case, in addition to being attracted to the tourist-oriented side, some p eople will be attracted to visit the other side as well, which presents opportunities for tourism development to spill over into the non-tourist side of the border. In the third instance, there may be communication and cooperation between the two sides so that the entire nature of cultural attraction system operates as one entity, or conversely, the border may act as a significant barrier altogether (Timothy, 2001).Cross border tourism is influenced by governmental policy and socio-economic factors such as trade treaties, sales tax rebates, inflation, exchange rates, shopping preferences and many other factors (Tepsongkroh, P., 2007). Border-related policies, differences in administrative structures on opposite sides, and the physical barrier creates by borders can affect many aspects of tourism, including travel motivations and decision making, infrastructure development, marketing and publicity and place image (Timothy, 2001). According to Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), such obstacles can hinder the flow of tourists and can help to shape the physical and socio-economic development of tourism in the destination regions elsewhere, as well as at the Thai and Malaysian border.Socio-demographic characteristicsAccording to Thirathanaphak, C. Akethammasiri, K. and Chainimit, P. (2009), socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral indicators are commonly used in tourism research to profile tourists by age, gender, income, marital place, occupations, education or ethnic background. These indicators are easy to identify and use in marketing decisions (Yavuz, 1994). Moreover, according to Handler, I (2009), he said that Pearce, (2005) Kotler, (2006), Middleton Clarke, (2007) Dickman, (1999) stated that one of the most common ways to divide tourists is by demographic factors, i.e. age, gender, education, occupation, expenditure or their geographic location. Furthermore, according to Suleiman, J.S Mohamed, B. (2011), generally socio-demographic variables such as age, income, nationality and education bring in been considered as relatively usable, since they are easy to measure (Lawson, 1994) and they are place as appropriate determinants of tourist behavior (Kastenholz, 2002 Baloglu Brinberg, 1997 Gitelson Kerstetter, 1990).In addition, according to Beerli, A. Martin, D. (2003), the individuals private characteristics, such as gender, age, occupation, education and social class, are internal inputs that influence the perceptions of places. When Walmsley and Jenkins (1993) studied the perceived image of different tourist resorts in Australia, they found that the image of some places differed depending on visitors gender and age. Besides that, Baloglu and McCleary (1999) found that an individuals age and level of education influenced the perceived image of mingled tourist destinations.According to Aswin Sangpikul, (2008), the literature review indicates that there may be a crew of socio-demographic variables that influence tourists behaviors. How ever, the results of previous studies imply that different sample groups may consecrate different socio-demographic factors influencing their travel-related behaviors (Sangpikul, A., 2008). Furthermore, according to Jang, S.C. Yu, L. Pearson, T.E. (2003), the socio-demographic profiles and trip-related characteristics of the visitors alter tourism marketers to understand who they are and how they lead on travel. descent between socio-demographics characteristics and tourist travel patternSocio-demographic variables are the primary factors that influence peoples travel-related behavior (Zimmer et al., Jang et al., Jang and Wu, 2006). These variables may include age, gender, education, income, economic status and wellness status. Zimmer et al. (1995) revealed that age, income and education emerged as the main variables that pardon booking versus non-participation in travel activities. Their study indicated that income and education influenced travelers when choosing nearby or f arther-away destinations, with travelers who were better educated and who had more disposable income being more in all probability to travel farther from home. These results were echoed by Sirisukul (1998), who found that Thai people with a high education and higher incomes were more likely to be motivated to record in leisure activities than those who were less educated and earned less income.Silberberg (1995) identified the cultural/heritage tourist as one who earned more money and spent more money while on pass was more highly educated than the general public was more likely to be female than male and inclineed to be in older age categories. Furthermore, Kerstetter, Confer and Graefe (2001) found that tourists with an interest in visiting heritage or cultural sites tend to stay longer, spend more per trip, are more highly educated and have a higher average yearly income than the general tourists.In addition, Brining (1995) found that women adopted safer approaches than men w hen it came to making raving mad consumer decisions. Barsky Labagh (1997) also reported a lower risk propensity amongst women than men.Besides that, Anderson (1993) stated that tourists ages are closely associated with the meaning tourists attached to crafts and to the purpose crafts served for the owners. According to Littrell (1990) showed that young tourists often nurtured crafts that reminded them of exciting shopping encounters and active tourism experiences, while older tourists preferred craft items that would bring them aesthetic merriment through their contemplation at home.Furthermore, a study of tourist dark markets in Taiwan carried out by Hsieh and Chang (2004) found that female visitors tend to come with friends or families rather than alone or single visitors expending more time and money compared to married ones.Tourists motivationAccording to French, et al. (2000), a focus on motivation provides a complex view of various factors to stimulate the travel demands for tourism and embraces both inner needs and wants. These needs and wants reflect perceptions, cultural conditioning and learning. Copper, Shepherd and Westlak (1996) presented Murphys model looking at psychological factors which influence demands (motivations, perceptions and expectations), and how these demanded criteria are linked by intermediaries in the market place (travel agencies and tour operators) with the supply of tourist facilities. Many different categories of motivations have an important influence on travel decision-making they are as follows (Tepsongkroh, P., 2007)Motivation as a purpose and reason for travel vacations (holidays, visiting friends and relatives), business (French, et al., 2000)Motivation as individuals needs and wants Maslows physiologic needs, security needs, social needs and self-esteem needs (Hall, 1998).Maslows Physiological NeedsFigure 2 Maslows physiological needsMotivation as satisfaction through tourist activities (French, et al., 2000). ph ysical motivators are related to rest, sports, recreation and those directly connected with a persons health such as spas and baths. These motivators all have one feature in common, the reduction of tension through activities related to physical factors.Cultural motivators are identified by the propensitys of the traveler to learn about other countries and their art, music, dances, traditions and religions. social motivators include a desire to meet new people, visit friends or relatives.Status and prestige motivators are related to the desire for recognition, attention, power and appreciation, as well as the desire to enhance sexual attractiveness.Motivations as pull and push factor cultural experience, pleasure-seeking/fantasy, and relaxation (Kozak, 2002).Motivation as the legality of the original factors such as relaxation, social and intellectual aspects (Ryan, 1998).Motivation as important to tourist information feelings of pleasure, excitement, relaxation (push factors), an d tourist attractions like sunshine, hearty people, and culture (pull factors) (Goossens, 2000).According to Kau Lim (2005), understanding tourists vacation motives, i.e. why people travel, is an tailor that has been researched extensively. By determining the motivations that influence peoples travel habits and destination selection would enable one to predict their future travel patterns, thereby aid in developing more appropriate marketing strategies to attract them (McGuiggan et al., 1995). Besides that, according to Sangpikul, A (2007), a common and useful theory used to judge tourist motivations is the theory of push and pull motivation as stated by Dann, (1977) Crompton, (1979) Yuan and Mcdonald, (1990) Klenosky, (2002). Moreover, Skourtis, G. Andreou, D. Koniordos, M. Assiouras, I. (2009) cited from Dann (1997), the push factors for a vacation are socio-psychological motives explaining the desire for travel, while the pull factors are motives aroused by the destination explaining the destination choice.According to Kau, A. K. Lim, P. S. (2005), vacation motives can be classified broadly into two main categories, push and pull factors as cited by Crompton, (1979) Dann, (1981). Push factors can be described as internally generated drives, causing the tourist to search for signs in objects, situations and events that contain the promise of reducing prevalent drives (Gnoth, 1997). Pull factors, on the other hand, are those that emerge as a result of the attractiveness of a destination as it is perceived by those with propensity to travel and include both tangible resources, such as beaches, recreation facilities and cultural attractions and travelers perceptions and expectation and marketing image (Uysal and Jurowski, 1994). Push factors have been regarded as useful in explaining the desire for travel, while pull motivations have been used to explain the choice of travel, destination (Crompton, 1979).According to Sangikul, A. (2008), he said that pu sh factors have been thought useful for explaining the desire to go on a vacation, while pull factors help explain the choice of destination as reported by Crompton, (1979). Therefore, Sangikul, A. (2008) said that understanding what motivate peoples travel behavior and destination selection is crucial to predicting their travel decisions and future travel patterns as cited by Cha et al., (1995) Jang and Cai, (2002) Klenosky, (2002) Jang Wu, (2006). Additionally, knowledge about tourist motivation enables tourism marketers to better revenge travelers needs and provide better products and services corresponding to their needs (Crompton, 1979 Jang and Cai, 2002 Jang and Wu, 2006 Sangikul, 2008). kin between tourists motivation and choice of destinationsPizam, Neuman and Reichel (1979) reveal relationships amongst certain motivations and choices related to the trip or destination. According to Prebensen (2006), motivation and the choice of holiday type or activities have been shown to be significantly related. Besides that, Moscardo, Morrison, Pearce, Lang and OLeary (1995) stated that activities are seen as the critical link between tourist motivations and destination choice. Moreover, according to irascibility (2010), activities affect tourists choice of destination through travel motivations. Specifically, activities create a motivation of travelling to a destination and the motivation turns into purchase behavior known as choice of the destination.John and Susan (1999) proposed that there are sextette motives, i.e. physical, emotional, personal, personal development, status and cultural motives. According to lien (2010), he said that the impact between motivation and activities can be explained in a different way. Specifically, with physical motivation, individuals prefer to travel destinations where have activities which can satisfy their needs of relaxation or suntans. Besides that, as for emotional motivation, people may insert in activities that can s atisfy their needs for utilization of romance, fantasy and spiritual fulfillment.Prebensen (2007) mentioned in the study that in the carry through of consuming or producing (Holt, 1995) a journey, tourists also experience novel situations, which might result in different choice patterns. Thus, motivations may lead to purchasing behavior, which is destination choosing behavior (Lien, 2010). Individuals who have different motivations may choose the same destinations and they participate similar or different types of activities to satisfy their needs.Tourists SatisfactionTraditional literature within consumer behavior pinpoints that customer satisfaction is the result or the final step of a psychological process from need recognition to valuation of experienced products (Peter and Olson, 1996). Besides that, according to Oliver (1997), satisfaction is defined as a judgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumptio n-related fulfillment. In addition, satisfaction also can be defined as an overall evaluation of a purchase (Fornell, 1992). Moreover, according to Raktida Siri (2009), Engel et al. (1995) stated that satisfaction was an outcome experience that at least met or exceeded expectations.According to Hui, J. (2002) Kozak Rimmington, (2000), tourist satisfaction is important to successful destination marketing because it influences the choice of the destination, the consumption of products and services and the decision to return. Therefore, understanding tourist satisfaction is of utmost important for the tourism industry, especially because of its effect on their future economy (Petrick, 2003). Satisfied tourists tend to herald their positive experience to others (word of mouth) and they tend to buy product repeatedly (Barsky, 1992 Beeho and Prentice, 1997 Hallowell, 1996 Kozak and Rimmington, 2000 Pizam, 1994 Ross, 1993).Raktida Siri (2009), cited from Meng et al. (2006) reason out th at there were nine theories on customer satisfaction expectancy disconfirmation, socialisation or cognitive dissonance, contrast, assimilation contrast, equity, attribution, comparison level, generalized negatively and value perception. Furthermore, among these nine theories, expectation disconfirmation model was accepted the most. Oliver (1980), cited from Kandampully (200) introduced an Expectancy Disconfirmation Model, which was a process of comparison between an expectation and an experience. Satisfaction would occur if the experience met expectation.According to Hui, J. (2002), he said that Chon and Olsen (1991) discovered a goodness of fit coefficient of correlation between tourists expectations about their destination and tourists satisfaction. Then, after tourist has bought the travel service products, if the evaluation of their experience of the travel product is better than their expectations, they will be satisfied with their travel experience.Besides that, according to Prebensen (2004), by including tourist travel motives and choices of activities at the destination as well as perception of products into the concept of satisfaction, a better understanding of why people become satisfied in addition to how satisfied they are is possible to identify, which further includes a better understanding concerning why people intent to recommend and re-buy the trip.Relationship between tourists satisfaction and destination attributesHuh (2002) stated that there is a need to investigate the relationship between destination attributes and tourists satisfaction from the tourists perspective in order to gain an in-depth understanding of tourists attributes and behavior after they visit a tourist destination. According to Fornell (
Friday, March 29, 2019
History and Overview of caprice Oximetry nervous impulse OximeteryLeslie BrucheyIntroduction to pulsation Oximetry cadence oximetry has flipd the medical field for eternity. The ability to be adequate to(p) to oversee a patients group O intensity noninvasively has become a proto fount of c atomic number 18 for those who be in the hospital. Pulse oximetry is the ability to measure the type O vividness of arterial blood using a pulse oximeter (Pulse oximetry,n.d). This al let looses the ashes to be externally monito departure and help maintain the group O saturation. The pulse oximeter allows for psyches oxygen saturation to be measured in a matter of seconds instead of drawling an arterial blood gas which requires a needle and about fifteen minutes to have the results (Arterial Blood Gas, n.d.).History of the Pulse OximeterA pulse oximeter is a device that allows for noninvasive measurement of a persons oxygen saturation within their body to befool sure their body has a dequate oxygenation to prevent fatigue, shortness of steer, becoming unconnected or even leave the body with permanent damage (Brite, 2010). Glenn Milikan was fitted to create a light-weight optical device that was satisfactory to be attitude on the earlobe to observe pilots oxygen levels go flying during beingness War II (Tremper, n.d). When Milikan developed this device he utilise Beer- cubic decimeters law which believes that using light and wave length potbelly determine that concentration of a solution (Tremper, n.d). In this case, this theory was able to revolutionize the pulse oximeter. This new technology was able to help pass by doctors and scientists the ability to look inside the body without making the person uncomfortable, or affect their performance in the pilots case. In 1964 a surgeon in San Francisco continued to develop the pulse oximeter and then it started to be distributed by Hewlett Packard in the 1970s. This pulse oximeter was the first single to be used in a hospital setting and was a large, bulky 35lbs homo of equipment. Not wholly was it large and bulky, it also cost about ten dollar bill thousand dollars. (History of Pulse Oximetry, 2002).The pulse oximeter has come a long air over the years and has become crucial in the medical field.How the Pulse Oximeter WorksWhen thinking about pulse oximetry, one whitethorn wonderment how a pulse oximeter works. This technology allows the health care professionals to see how rise up soulfulness is oxygenating their blood. The blood is oxygenated through the lungs and then the blood is pumped from the meat throughout the body to organs and tissues to provide the needed oxygenation (A Patients Guide to Heart, n.d.). The musical mode the pulse oximeter works is it looks at how oxygenated the blood is. Blood that is holding onto more(prenominal) hemoglobin absorbs more of the light that is provided by the pulse oximeter and allows more red light to pass through. Blood that ha s less oxygen will non absorb as frequently, leading to a lower oxygen saturation percentage (Principles of Pulse Oximetry, 2002).Types of Pulse OximetersTodays society, pulse oximeters foundation come in all different shapes and sizes. In the hospital setting, they lot be portable with just as big as a D battery. This type just slips on a finger or ear and then is turned on to have a reading of the persons oxygen saturation and pulse rate. Another type that is common in a hospital setting is one that is dependant to a monitor in the room and is a piece of commemorate that can be wrapped around the finger to continuously monitor the oxygen situation. This type is great in an Intensive Care unit of measurement or someone who unavoidably to be monitored closely. Not only are pulse oximeters used in the health care facility, but in that location also used for personal use, especially for someone who already has compromised lungs and needs to be able to monitor their own oxyg en saturation whenever they may feel short of breath or are experiencing other symptoms of low oxygenation. Pulse oximters are easy to obtain online or through a medical supply company. Online a portable pulse oximeter can crop from twenty dollars to several hundreds of dollars depending on the brand and the other options that not only pertain to measuring oxygen saturation (How Much Does a Pulse, n.d.).Reasons to reminder Oxygen SaturationSome of the reasons that oxygen saturation would be tried is for surgery, procedures that involve sedation, diseases such as COPD, anemia, lung cancer and anything that may compromise the potence of the lungs that would prevent adequate oxygenation of the blood (Oximetry, n.d.).With the health care professionals being able to monitor someones oxygen saturation, they are able to interfere sooner and prevent further complications.Oxygen SaturationThe normal shake off for a persons oxygen saturation should be mingled with 96% to 99% in someone who has no respiratory issues. For someone who has mild respiratory trouble, their range should be anywhere from 90% and above. When ones oxygen level becomes less than 90 for an extended full point of time, they need to seek medical attention to prevent further complications (Pulse oximeter readings, 2010). If someone is experiencing low oxygen saturation, some of the symptoms they could be experiencing are shortness of breath and cyanosis which means the skin may have a blue expression due to the lack of oxygen rich blood (Veach, 2011). If someone is experiencing these symptoms, they should seek medical attention.Interventions for Low Oxygen SaturationsIf someone is suffering from inadequate oxygenation, in that respect a few different demeanors to intervene. One way is to place an oxygen mask on the patient. This will allow extra oxygen to support the persons lungs in providing more oxygen and preventing them from working harder to breath (Bateman Leach, 1998). similarly if the situation is not remedied, other inventions may include an invasive arterial blood gas, BIPAP/ CPAP, which will push air into the lungs and support the lungs. All these interventions are imitated based on pulse oximetry monitoring of a patients oxygen saturation.ConclusionPulse oximetery has become a revolutionary change in medicine over the years. Now that health care professionals are able to monitor a patients oxygen saturation noninvasively at any given time, early intervention can be put in place such as supplemental oxygen to prevent complications or even death. With the invention of the pulse oximeter and the ability to monitor the oxygen saturation without being invasive to the person has become a great contribution. If pulse oximetery and the pulse oximeter were never invented, what would happen to people in the hospital? Would everyone have to be stuck just to find out a basic measurement every few hours? This invention, has allowed people to keep their comfort, whi le allowing others to have access to needed data to treat them properly. The pulse oximeter has changed the way hospitals and the health care professionals monitor oxygen saturation forever.Works CitedA patients guide to heart surgery. (n.d.). Retrieved from University of Southern Californiawebsite http//www.cts.usc.edu/Arterial blood gas. (n.d.). Retrieved from http//almostadoctor.co.ukBateman, N., Leach, R. (1998). subtile oxygen therapy. Retrieved fromhttp//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.govBrite, S. (2010). Importance of oxygen monitoring. Retrieved from http//ezinearticles.com/History of pulse oximetry. (2002, September 10). Retrieved from Oximetry.org websitehttp//www.oximetry.org/How much does a pulse oximeter cost. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2014, fromGoogle website http//www.google.comOximetry. (n.d.). Retrieved from http//www.hopkinsmedicine.orgPrinciples of pulse oximetry technology. (2002, September 10). Retrieved fromOximetry.org website http//www.oximetry.orgPulse oximetry. (n. d.). Retrieved from http//medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.comPulse oximeter readings. (2010). Retrieved from http//www.amperorassociates.co.ukTremper, K. n.d. Pulse oximetry. Retrieved from http//journal.publications.chestnet.orgVeach, M. (2011, March 10). What are effects of low blood oxygen levels?. Retrieved fromwww.livestrong.com
Analysis of Performance of Registered NurseINTRODUCTION captious chiding acts as the precursor for transformative escorting, which takes place by variegateing the direct of personal chthonianstandings and the behavior (Mezirow, 1990). Critical refection leads to improved learning, assessment and persuasion with attentiveness to the system and the society (Smith, 2011). Critical reflectiveness en satisfactorys an individual to look beyond the horizon and visualize the bigger picture and develop campaignable views around the situation so that the assessment understructure become easier. Critical thoughtfulness is taught in various professional force palm, including the health cargon system. This concept is non just theoretical simply requires practical applic aptitude as thoroughly. Theoretic each(prenominal)y in that take to be be triplet models for reflecting diminutively. The first is the Deweys model of reflective learning which advocates that k standard ized a shotledge thunder mug be obtained by relating the past and present d healthys. This cuddle is referred to as the pragmatic approach. The second model is that of Habermas, which advocates the critical theory arsehole this approach and demonstrates three areas of get it onledge, namely, practical, technical and emancipator. The third and the last model is the Kolbs model of reflexive learning (Patricia Lucas, 2012). The Australian Nursing Federations standards of competency for a blow postulate identified r roll forward three field of operationss of better level competencies adaptation of commit, conceptualization of approach pattern and leading on with the practice (Australian Nursing Foundation, 2005).AIM AND OBJECTIVEThe impersonal of this paper is to critically examine and reflect on my professional skills and exercise as a registered nurse, in the domain of adaptation of practice. The paper discusses active the main concept of critical reflection and similar ly the competencies in the said(prenominal) domain. This quiz is pen in first person, as it will care in better dread of the critical competencies feature by an individual. commentaryThe initial period of kneading in any professional field is very difficult and tiring. When I go awayed to manoeuvre as a nurse, in the emergency, I used to work for 6 days a week. The timings were also very stringent, from 8.00 AM till 3.00 PM. The work load was much(prenominal)(prenominal) high as compared to the task force available. The number of nurses was reduced considerably and the health ply was under continuous stress as they had to cater to so many diligents. An a nonher(prenominal) problem faced by the health staff was the duration of stay of the perseverings and the workload on the emergency section. In my country, general statistics show that unyieldinganimouss stayed for minimum twain days. With severally nurse catering to 6-7 longanimouss at oneness time, it is nearl y impossible to pay adequate attention to each on simultaneously. Plus this increases the work load to a greater extent. near of the nurses, who worked, just had a diploma in care for, while I and two others had the bachelors degree. This is what distinguished us. We had better theoretical as well as practical skills as compared to them. This plus operate kind of added to the workload I had. I was made responsible for all the emergency situations and for looking after the patients who were brought in emergency conditions. One of the main procedures of emergency is seam. Since suturing requires both practical as well as theoretical skills, I was the one who was given the task of suturing, assessing the wounds of the injured, examining any other damage homogeneous that to arteries or tendons or nerve fibers. The morning task was to review all the patients along with the doctors and because for the latter half of the day each nurse was assigned 6 to 7 patients to take care of.OV ERVIEW OF CRITICAL reprimandNursing literature frequently mentions to the highest degree critical reflection unless nowhere has this term been defined precisely (McBrien, 2007). Vaguely it has been mentioned as the puzzle out of analyzing practice through regulated ego reflection (Crowe OMalley, 2006). Although everybody has the ability to think with a different perspective, the aim of critical reflection is to invoke knowledge and redefine our understanding about self, by increasing self awareness and self consciousness, thereby focusing on the outcomes of our serves (Forrest, 2008). at that place are too many scenarios in the health care system, where the nurses are subject to unexplained judgments, put downpretations and decisions. To relieve the stress burden from our shoulders, it is fundamental to inculcate critical thinking in our lives. Yes, it is true, critical reflection will give apprise to anxiety, conflict and also cause self doubting issues but it will, at long last, alter the professional practice in an affirmative way (OConnor, 2008). The new postcode within will help in ambitious the beliefs and assumption, that already inhabit and lead to better understanding of the things and thereby bringing about a change for benefit of all. Because of the increase in expectation from the nurses, they face Byzantine demands, change and higher accountability. To comply with such situations, they need to develop skills of thinking on a higher level and improvement in the abstract thought abilities (Crowe OMalley, 2006). Schn (1983) has put forward two major reflections reflection in action (which occurs when the action is organism performed and is a result of thinking critically) and reflection on action (which is reflected after the action has been performed). Reflection in action involves many skills like being a wide observer in every situation and trying to learn something out of every situation, interpreting, recording and underst anding your feelings and responses to a certain situation and then inter relating your previous experiences, always stigma yourself counted in the experience via taking a witness stance. On the other hand reflection on action is the just about common form of reflection as what you drive home learnt or understood from your past encounters, all reflects in your future actions (David Somerville, 2004). Critical reflection is important for nurses because they need to incorporate change in their daily interaction, accommodate and update their professional skills, should develop self awareness and self directedness. They keister successfully utilize the opportunities alone if they ponder upon the feedback of their interactions and their impact on the patient, their families, colleagues and the health care unit as a whole. Therefore, critical reflection forms the most important ingredient for cooking the recipe of unafraid conduct.DOMAIN OF come toDay by day the complexities of the health care system are increasing. Thus, to meet the requirements various competency standards have been stria up for registered nurses for progress nursing. These competency standards aim to distinguish between the general and modernistic nursing practices (Australian Nursing Federation, 2005 International Council of Nurses, 2010). The domain of interest here is the domain of adapting practice. It contains the competency abilities of advanced registered nurses to comply with and adjust or adapt to the challenging and more complex situations and still yield in better outcomes in terms of function offered (Australian Nursing Federation, 2005). The standards that are set, help in boost post graduate education for development in the field of advanced nursing practices and also enable each individual to individually critically analyze their competency in different domains (McGee, 2009). Like every other domain, the domain of adapting practice also stresses on understanding and mee ting the inevitably and requirements of the patients who are suffering from complex and critical conditions (competency standard 4). This domain also defers that improvement in the predicted outcomes should be made by referring to the past experiences and collection information from other sources as well (competency standard 6) (Australian Nursing Federation, 2005). This essay also reflects upon the competencies of a registered nurse and the abilities that were utilized during complex and stressful situations.FEELINGS AND THOUGHTS fitting to a new environment is extremely difficult and it takes lots of intentness and practice to adapt comfortably. I face many challenges in my study and earlier found it difficult to adapt. I also felt humiliated when I needed help and could not ask anybody, fearing that my reputation would go down and that my fellow colleagues would make fun of me. Being equipped with the interpersonal skills, theoretical as well as practical knowledge about tak ing care of the patients and delivering the best quality of service, enabled me to climb up the running game of success. yet though earlier it was difficult for me to interact with my fellow colleagues, now I dissolve converse comfortably with anyone including my colleagues, patient, families and other staff members. well-nigh of this was the result of feedback which I received from the patients, who generally praised my ability to empathize with the patients and then cater to their needs. As quoted above, feedback is an essential component for critical reflection, the dogmatic feedback that I received from the consumers and my fellow staff members helped me visualize things with a different approach. I started enjoying my work. There were situations when I feared the outcome of some medical examination examination action. In my country, there are no rules and regulations pertaining to the safety of the health care professionals. This causes safety issues with the carers. Eve n I found myself in such situation when the medical practices could not save the life of the patient and his family members were outrageous, blaming the hospital for their loss, intending to burn down the correct building and take revenge. But then one should not be afraid of shadows, as shadows mean there is light somewhere near. There is an instance that reminds me of my good work and better proceeding as a nurse. I once cared for a boy who had been stabbed in the abdomen. There was copious bleeding and I had taken every possible measure to kibosh the blood flow and restore the consciousness of the boy. Three weeks later, that same boy came with his parents and thanked me for saving his life. Such precious compliments and gratitudes count a lot in the long run.EVALUATIONI realized that during my performance in the hospital, as a registered nurse, I had some positive as well as negative traits. Good command over side language was counted among my positive traits. This enabled me to quickly read and understand the nursing articles written in English. Also since I could understand and associate what was mentioned, I was able to deliver effective care to the patients. Also my expertise in the fields of pathophysiology and emergency skills made me an important person in the hospital. Whe neer there was a case of any emergency, I was made responsible to monitor the patient and do the needful. On the contrary, the nurses who overlooked the knowledge about emergency skills or were not fluent in English language missed the opportunity.Ching Ying Lee (1998) has account that nursing practice requires knowledge of proficient English as the nurses should be capable of using medical terms in fluent English. English is the most common language spoken worldwide and therefore, such a language should be known by all in parade to address the cross cultural barriers in health care. Not only English is a common language but it has been named as the scientific language w orldwide. Therefore, it is essential that all the communications pertaining to the medical condition of the patient, the health care outcomes and the treatment be explained in English to the patient as well as the concerned members (Mylaeus Renggli MI 1998).Another positive point that added to my portfolio was the good interpersonal and communication skills. With these skills I was able to interact efficiently with the staff and the patients as well. In order to deliver better services I followed the rule of empathy. Whenever any new patient was put under my care, I listened to him/ her and tried to picture myself in her/ his situation, so that I can understand better about the current situation of the patient and then provide the guidelines to the family and the other medical staff. Most frequently we were faced with situations in which the burden on the health care unit was so much that all the patients were not being given equal attention, due to lack of task force and increase d number of patients. In such cases one or the other patient or the family member would stand and start shouting in anger. I helped in controlling many such situations by calmly making the individual understand our plight and thereby promising him that I will take care of his/ her family member as soon as I bring free. I utilized my good communication skills to deal with such patients.It is very important to have good communication skills in order to build trust between the patient and the doctor. It will consequently allow or enable the patient to introduce the information which might prove fruitful. Good communication also motivates the patient to get involved in the decisions connect to health care, minimizes the risk of mishaps and errors and eventually enhances the satisfaction level of the patient (NHMRC, 2004). Literature has also shown the importance of understanding the cultural beliefs of the patients and making more accurate and meanful decisions that are appreciated by the patient and the family both (Lawrence Dyche, 2007).Another important learning from my experience was that knowledge is never enough. Even after being a unmarried mans degree holder, I found myself lagging behind in the field of pharmacology. Thus, it became the need of the hour for me to undergo a special three months training in this field and then I was all set and comfortable in explaining the patients about different drugs and their prescriptions. Although it is not advisable for the nurses to get into doctors role and prescribe drugs t the patients but they should know what different drugs are meant for, so that if the patient has a query related to which drug is administered to him or why it is administered, they should be able to answer them with authorisation (Clare Lomas, 2010).One of the negative traits that I discovered within myself was not being able to extract the medical history of the patient. Emergency nurses should possess the skills of forcible assessmen t as well as health history. This lag can be attributed to the overburden and work overload during the emergency situations. Another reason can be the demand for nurses as there had been shortage of nurses since of long time in my hospital.Joann Griff Alspach (2011) has laid forward the importance of knowing the medical history of the patient as well as of his family. This is important because a track record of all the details about the illness that have been occurring in the family can help in predicting the prognosis of the current state of the patient. Also prior information can help the doctors determine the allergies the patient possesses when subjected to certain chemicals or drugs.Another negative quality that I possessed was lack of team spirit. Whenever I had many patients and was overloaded with work, even though I wanted someone to help me, yet I never asked for help. I am now able to realize that team work is essential for efficient working of the team as it enables us t o learn something new and benefit from each of the members involved.ANALYSISMy experience, expectations, feedback and results have majorly influenced the knowledge I have gained so far. My skills like being able to communicate proficiently in English and being able to understand the text presented in medical journals, which are generally written in English, has helped me gain citation and my work has been appreciated by the authorities as well. Communication is an important aspect of health care as it promotes commonality of understanding and meaning (Sonia Allen, 2007). Also my skills like the knowledge of pathophysiology and dealing with patients during emergency situations helped me get positive response from the patients and their family members.Though there are certain negative aspects also, like lack of team spirit and lack of ability to get medical history out from the patient, yet I am happy that I am now able to analyze my performance as a whole and can work in the field o f teamwork and improve my traits further. implication RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE PRACTICEI feel that I have precisely highlighted all my strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats pertaining to the nursing practices. According to the standards for practice specified by the Nursing Council, the very first principle to e followed if to respect the identity operator and dignity of all the health consumers. Treating with respect means interacting with the consumers in a polite and considerate manner, thereby helping them cope with their deteriorated condition and enable quick recovery. It is important to understand the cultural needs as well and decide upon the course of treatment accordingly. All the registered nurses are expected to work in partnerships as this enhances the working capability and also builds trust among the members of the staff, go away no scope of discrimination. Another wisdom of working in partnerships can be with respect to the health consumers. It is imp ortant to listen to them, respond to their concerns and have a go at it their preferences as well. It is not necessary to give affirmation to all their preferences but only to those which are practicable. Also, it the responsibility of the nurse to encourage and motivate the consumers by providing them relevant and complete information about their condition, so that they can make decisions independently. Another point to be kept in mind is to respect and allow patients privacy and confidentiality. The code of conduct should follow of integrity so that the consumers trust can be justified. oneness means consistency in the principles and morality that you follow and not abusing the seat held by you or the trust of the authorities. Lastly, all the registered nurses must maintain world confidence and trust in their profession and also maintain the ethics involved (Nursing Counsil, 2011).CONCLUSIONThe aim of this essay was to provide a lucubrate outline of the analysis of the perf ormance of a registered nurse, when working in the domain of adapting practice. The basic concept of critical reflection and how it modifies the outlook or the perception has been well explained with the help of live examples.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
I had been running track all by dint of high naturalize and was just ab let step up to start my senior season. I had never been great, but good enough to make states last yr in the middle distances. Up until this year our only coaches were your typical, out of shape, over the hill, middle aged women who only coached track because they were either mean doddery biddies who liked to boss around young women or were ath allowes themselves before they let themselves go and now wanted to relive their fantasies of victory through our punishing work and sweat.This spring though, things changed. We had a student teacher that offered to help out with the track team. She had run track in both high school and college but had used up her last year of eligibility and now was works on her Masters of Education. Her name was Naomi and she was assigned the runners since she obviously was better at it than any of our other coaches. Not only that, but she was faster than any angiotensin-convertin g enzyme else on the team except our top girl in the 100. She could easily foil everyone else in any distance up to the mile. Add to that the fact that she was prettier than some of the girls on the team and our fragile egos were taking a beating. If she hadnt been one of the nicest and roughly helpful people in the world things might have gotten ugly. Instead, she became one of our best friends, as well as our coach and some of our teacher.I dont know exactly why, but Naomi seemed to make me her special project for the season. From the eldest day of practice she pushed me harder than anyone else, spent more time with me and made indisputable that I pushed myself. Maybe it was because I ran the same distances she ran, but then once more so did a few of the other girls. Maybe it was because she saw something in me that none of the other coaches had. I wasnt sure what it was, but at clock I enjoyed the redundant attention, at other times I detested it when she made me run the extra distance or work extra hard. She seemed to be able to know exactly how to get the best out of me though because by mid season she had me running the best times I had ever run and even a few college scouts were starting time to stop by at our meets to check me out.
The Vi world powersThe reciprocation Viking in the Websters comprehensive full-length Dictionary of the position lecture says that the word Viking means the following. Viking 1. any of the Scandinavian pirates who give nonice the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries. 2. a sea-roving bandit pirate. 3. a Scandinavian. 4. U.S. Aerospace. 1 of a series of space probes that obtained scientific information some Mars. (1)The Vikings lived about one thousand years ago in the get tos that we now think Iceland, Lapland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. To most people the Vikings were raiders that got in their longboats and sailed someplace and then went from town to town killing and pillaging. This is not completely true, because the Vikings were to a fault great adventurers. They set up trading links and looked for land that they could deign down make a home and have a farm. provided not to say that the Vikings werent fierce warriors, because they were great warriors th at won almost e real early battle. Although they neer had an empire, the King of Denmark ruled Norway and England for a skeleton time from 1030 to 1035. The Vikings had many actors for going away their homeland and living up to beingness the great adventurers that they were. One reason to leave was that the land that the Vikings were living in was becoming oer populated, such that one family couldnt own as much land, as he would comparable. Also the land in Scandinavia, that they lived on was precise mountainous and had very little land that could be farmed. withal Sweden contained many forests that made it not fit for farming.The Viking people were divided up into different classes much like many other societies. They were divided up by how much land and money that they had. There were the kings that ruled over each township. Below him came the bountiful noblemen, or jarls. The king and the jarls were the most right people in a township. Then below the jarls there were t he freemen or the karls, which included craftsmen, merchants, and farmers. At the very bottom of the totem pole were the slaves otherwise cognize as thralls. The majority of Vikings spent very little time forth from home on raids. sort of they were at home working as farmers, growing oats, barley, rye, and vegetables, and tending to their cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats. They to a fault kept fruits, such as apples, and yeasty such as hazelnuts and walnut... ... Inc, 1996, scallywag 21222. Streissguth, Thomas, intent Among the Vikings, luminous Books, Inc, 1999, foliate 493. Streissguth, Thomas, vivification Among the Vikings, bright Books, Inc, 1999, rascal 494. Streissguth, Thomas, aliveness Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 505. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 546. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 547. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999 , page 278. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 27Bibliography1. Done by Committee. Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York, NY Random House valuate Publishing, Inc, 1996.2. Martell, Hazel Mary. What Do We hit the sack About The Vikings? New York, NY Simon & Schuster Young Books, 1992.3. Ganeri, Anita. focus on On Vikings. New York, NY Aladdin Books, 19924. Streissguth, Thomas. Life Among the Vikings. San Diego, California Lucent Books, Inc, 19995. http//www.sandiaprep.org/library/ booze/bib.html6. http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/vikings/village.html For the videos on CD. The Vikings Essay -- Scandinavian Pirates History Vikings EssaysThe VikingsThe word Viking in the Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language says that the word Viking means the following. Viking 1. any of the Scandinavian pirates who plunder the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries. 2. a sea-roving bandit pirate. 3. a Scandinavian. 4. U.S. Aerospace. One of a series of space probes that obtained scientific information about Mars. (1)The Vikings lived about one thousand years ago in the lands that we now call Iceland, Lapland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. To most people the Vikings were raiders that got in their longboats and sailed somewhere and then went from town to town killing and pillaging. This is not completely true, because the Vikings were also great adventurers. They set up trading links and looked for land that they could settle down make a home and have a farm. But not to say that the Vikings werent fierce warriors, because they were great warriors that won almost every early battle. Although they never had an empire, the King of Denmark ruled Norway and England for a brief time from 1030 to 1035. The Vikings had many reasons for leaving their homeland and living up to being the great adventurers that they were. One reason to leave was that the land that the Vikings were living in was becoming over populated, such that one family couldnt own as much land, as he would like. Also the land in Scandinavia, that they lived on was very mountainous and had very little land that could be farmed. Likewise Sweden contained many forests that made it not fit for farming.The Viking people were divided up into different classes much like many other societies. They were divided up by how much land and money that they had. There were the kings that ruled over each township. Below him came the rich noblemen, or jarls. The king and the jarls were the most powerful people in a township. Then below the jarls there were the freemen or the karls, which included craftsmen, merchants, and farmers. At the very bottom of the totem pole were the slaves otherwise known as thralls. The majority of Vikings spent very little time away from home on raids. Instead they were at home working as farmers, growing oats, barley, rye, and vegetables, and tending to their cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats. They also kept fruits, such as apples, and nuts such as hazelnuts and walnut... ... Inc, 1996, page 21222. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 493. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 494. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 505. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 546. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 547. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 278. Streissguth, Thomas, Life Among the Vikings, Lucent Books, Inc, 1999, page 27Bibliography1. Done by Committee. Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York, NY Random House Value Publishing, Inc, 1996.2. Martell, Hazel Mary. What Do We Know About The Vikings? New York, NY Simon & Schuster Young Books, 1992.3. Ganeri, Anita. Focus On Vikings. New York, NY Aladdin Books, 19924. Streissguth, Thomas. Life Among the Vikings. San Diego, California Lucent Books, Inc, 19995. http//www.sandiaprep.org/library/bib/bib.html6. http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/vikings/village.html For the videos on CD.