Sunday, March 31, 2019
Disadvantages Of Arv Treatment Health And Social Care Essay
Disadvantages Of Arv Treatment Health And Social C atomic number 18 EssayHerbs rescue been utilise extensively in hopes of improving immune response and reducing symptoms. No cognise herb tea remedy has been shown to bring round help or verit fitting(a) reduce chances of help-related infections. Still, several(prenominal) herbs post be worth trying if utilise safely and in consultation with a qualified practitioner who non hardly chthonianstands herbs but also has experience treating AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus infection.Immunity- march oning herbs (such as Astragalus, Echinacea, and Ginkgo) may help revive an ailing immune dodge, and veritable herbs (such as Garlic) may help battle bacteria and viruses. Deglycyrrhizinated licorice can tranquilize the mouth and throat ulcers that frequently accomp all full-blown AIDS.Unfortunately, there is no cognize scientific explanation yet, for how herbs suck up these powers in treating AIDS and the only in descr iptoration available about how useful herbal treatments and remedies can be, is ground on the knowledge gained from people musical accompaniment with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. This means that non all herbs and remedies have the same entrap on all people. roughly communities have their own knowledge of health and nutrition, nursing homed on topical anesthetic traditions and culture. This may complicate the administration of herbal remedies from region to region, as the constitutional factor is now depending whether the patient is go a counsellinging to cross cultures in wander to obtain treatment.In several(prenominal) extreme cases, both external medical exam checkup recommendations that a patient may receive is comp argond with their cultural practices and the recommendations of their handed-down healers. Patients ordain only take action if the recommendations they receive appear to start consciousness and provide some benefit.Ironically, some traditiona l beliefs and food practices may non be useful at all, judging that a herb alike(p) Garlic origin should scarper whether the patient is of Chinese or African descent. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS often become frustrated with management of the ailment and are willing to try any(prenominal)thing in the hope of staying wakeless and living coarseer.One of the grea running game disadvantages is that HIV/AIDS is not a traditional illness and so far, there is no hard evidence to swear that traditional medicines or herbal remedies can treat HIV and cure AIDS. However, certain herbal medicines may help to treat many of the symptoms of opportunist infections that are interpreter of AIDS. While some of these medicines may be undoubtedly helpful, differents may be dangerous as they may do more harm than good. This happens when the patient mixes pharmaceutic drugs and herbs resulting in contra-indications or when they take certain foods that should be otherwise av oided.The notion that herbal medicines are natural and and then safe is as widespread as it is misleading. Some of these remedies have been associated with unsafe adverse effects constituted by the toxicity of the herbal ingredients. Others may cause problems because of contamination or adulteration 9.Herbs and spices should be use in see to it amounts. Exceeding these amounts may cause problems and have a toxic effect moreover, the function of the herbs and spices will not be increased. Herbs do not transpose healthy eating and should not be employ in power of a healthy and balanced diet but they do turn back the bodys natural pH ( alkalescent) and this in turn, as discussed before, forces the microzymes to stop mutating into bacteria, viruses and funguses that cause opportunist infections.2.1.7 Advantages of herbal tea TreatmentOn general note, herbal therapies seek to boost patients immune dusts, inhibit opportunistic infections, alleviate symptoms, and inhibit HIV its elf.Herbal medicines are actually cheap in comparison to the conventional practice of medical specialtyHerbal medicine helps the body to maintain its natural pH, which is alkaline this in turn starves and inhibits all adverse microzymes from growing or mutating.Herbal medicines can be consumed without the aid of any kind of prescription(prenominal), although a herbal or medical practitioner has to be consulted priorHerbal medicines are known to be more productive in comparison to other forms of medication in curing certain conditions.Herbal medicines twisting long lasting benefits in terms of overall wellness.In certain situations, Herbs are con stancered a possible means to minimize drug side effects. contrasted with the convectional highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), herbs do not need to work in confederacy in order to get effective resultsHerbs are readily available and once a patient knows which herb to use, he/she can grow their own.2.1.8 Disadvantages of Herb al TreatmentCuring period is usually long- life history in comparison to conventional medicationDrug-interactions can be angry to a patient ,if they decide to mix herbs and drugsHerbal medicines are known to be ineffective against serious ailmentsHerbal medicines are taken without prescription which means that in some cases, individual might be infragoing a trial and error demonstrate with their medication.Herbal medicines can cause supersensitized reactions in some casesHerbal medicines will not eliminate the HI virus out of the body close governments do not love of any kind of herbal medication. Its usually consumed upon the persons own risk, and when it comes to branded herbal supplements one cant expect any kind of quality confidence2.2 practised clays and their use on the Internet2.2.0 dear remainssAn effective dust of find oneselfs is a computer program that incorporates concepts attaind from estimables in a field, uses the available cultivation, heuristics an d conclusion to suggest solutions to problems in that extra discipline or give advice.An estimable system should have good decision making, this is strongly dependent on various capabilities that include the effective acquisition, storage, distribution and sophisticated use of the military man technologicals in the field in question.The to the highest degree widely used way of representing domain knowledge in expert systems is as a bewilder of production detects which is also how humans generally infer decisions. technological systems were do to provide knowledge and advice to a galacticr number of users than one user. An Expert system can be viewed as a teaching dent because it is equipped with the unique features which allow the users to need questions on how, why and what format, expert systems also allow mechanization of many tasks that could not be effectively handled by human experts.In addition, an Expert system attempts to emulate how a human expert solves a problem, mostly by the manipulation of symbols alternatively of numbers. As a result because of the low cost per user and automation of numerous tasks ,expert system making has become very attractive and in the long run is oft cheaper than getting human expert advice, its phylogeny is however relatively costly but its operation is painless and preferably cheap.Maintenance is easy as well because once an expert system is developed it is simple to add impudently theatre of operations to the knowledge abode and new overtops can be developed.2.2.1 Advantages of Expert systemsAvailability The expert system is always available 24 hours a day and will on no account tireCan capture scarce expertise, hoard from a number of experts and integrate their opinions.Consistency The computer does not make common futile human mistakes such as forgetting, getting inebriate or strike when it is most needed.Data can be kept up-to-date.Efficiency Expert systems have an increased output and pr oductivity as well as decreased decision making time.Flexibility Expert systems can operate in hazardous environments. They can also work with incomplete or uncertain information.Scalability The system can be used at a distance over a network and so can reach a large population.The computer can fund far more information than a human expert.2.2.2 Disadvantages of Expert systemsexpertness can be hard to extract from humansExpert system users have natural cognitive limits (therefore can not perform as perfectly as a human)Experts vocabulary is often limited and highly technicalExpert systems may not be able to move in at valid conclusions and sometimes produce incorrect recommendationsKnowledge is not always readily availableLack of trust by end-usersMost experts have no independent means to validate their conclusions2.3 Structure of Expert systemsA typical expert system consists ofA knowledge cup of tea this contains the particular proposition domain knowledge that is used by an e xpert to derive conclusions from factsThe demonstration locomotive, which is responsible for employ the rules and facts to derive conclusions whether it is through beforehand, backward chaining or a combination of both.An explanation system, which provides information to the user about how the inference engine arrived at its conclusionsA fact entropy creation, which contains the case-specific entropy that are to be used in a particular case to derive a conclusion andA User interface, which provides access to the inference engine, the explanation system, and the knowledge-base editor.Knowledge rear detailDatabaseExpert System Shell inductionEngineKnowledgeBase EditorExplanationSystemUser InterfaceUserFigure2.1 A basic structure of an Expert System.An Expert System can be rule-based, frame based or both. In a rule-based system, the knowledge base is a database of rules. Rule-based systems are computer systems that use rules to provide recommendations or diagnoses, or to determin e a course of action in a particular situation or to solve a particular problem.Its line of debate or the inference engine technique can be preceding chaining, backward chaining, or a combination of both and the rete algorithm.2.4 Inference EngineThe knowledge in the knowledge base is used for think and inferring conclusions. An inference rule is an abstract structure that contains a set of rules that mathematically delineates a (usually in impermanent) set of finite length strings over a (usually finite) alphabet. It is a two part structure using First set up Logic for knowledge representation.IfthenThe brain of expert system is the inference engine which is generally a large number of rules and facts. The inference engine matches facts and data, which is in the fact database against the inference rules to infer conclusions which result in actions. The process of matching the new or existing facts against inference rules is called shape matching.Pattern matching in the infere nce engine can use any of the spare-time activity algorithmsLinearReteTreatLeapsMost of the rule engines under study implement and extend the Rete algorithm. Leaps is also used widely but is questionable due to poor maintenance. Rete based engines have proprietary enhancements to the Rete algorithm like RetePlus, Rete III and ReteOO.The Rete algorithm is responsible for ensuring that there is a clear distinction amid rules and facts in the database. This algorithm takes the form of a network, with nodes and paths. Each path from the root node to a leaf in the tree represents the left-hand side of a rule. Each node stores details of which facts have been matched by the rules at that point in the path.In situations where new data or facts are added, it means the Rete algorithm will propagate and change data stored at the node accordingly. In this way, the system only needs to test each new fact against the rules, and only against those rules to which the new fact is relevant, quite of checking each fact against each rule.2.4.1 Methods of Inference Engine execution in that respect are two methods of execution for rule based expert systems, forward chaining and backward chaining. And systems that implement both are called hybrid production rule systems.2.4.2Forward ChainingThis is a data driven and then reactionary method. When applying forward chaining, the first-class honours degree step is to take the facts in the fact database and see if any combination of these matches all the antecedents (conditions) of one of the rules in the rule database. When all the antecedents of a rule are matched by facts in the database, then this rule is triggered. Usually, when a rule is triggered, it is then fired, which means its conclusion is added to the facts database.2.4.3 Backward ChainingThis method is goal driven, substance that we start with a conclusion which the engine tries to satisfy. An inference engine using backward chaining would search the inference rules until it finds one which has a then article that matches a desired goal. If the if clause of that inference rule is not known to be true, then it is added to the list of goals. Searches for sub goal conclusions begin, in hopes that, that will help satisfy some part of the current goal. It continues this process until either the initial conclusion is proven or there are no more sub goals.2.5 Expert system shellsExpert systems can be built that contain all the useful methods without any domain specific knowledge. These systems are called skeletal systems, shells or Artificial intelligence tools. The interpreter is quarantined from the domain-specific knowledge and thus creating a system that could be used to take in new expert systems by adding new knowledge corresponding to the new problem domain.Examples of shells include CLIPS, eGanges, OPS5, ART, JESS, and Eclipse.2.6 Systems currently in use2.6.1 Expert System for HIV/AIDS informationThe above expert system was created under th e motivation of a Microsoft sponsored project called IHISM, which aims to contribute to the digital divide by developing an HIV and AIDS public information portal accessible through mobile phones 10.The Expert system was tailored made with university extension to Botswana, according to UNAIDS estimates, HIV/AIDS has affected every segment of Botswana night club and one-third of Botswanas sexually-active population between the ages of 15 and 49 (out of a tote up population of 1.5 million) are infected with the virus, which is the highest rate in the world 11.The information service portal would allow the public to request for information on topics related to HIV and AIDS such as descriptions, infection, testing, counselling and support, opportunistic diseases and paediatric fretfulness etc. The portal represents this information in the form of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) service where the user inputs a query on any of the subjects.The system is meant to act as an online exp ert in HIV and AIDS information such that, some information may have to be derived through inference as opposed to simple data retrieval. The system is to accept as input a FAQ from the user and provide the most relevant answer to the question.Challenges of the systemUsers may ask the questions differently in pursuit of the same answerSystem should be able to systematically analyse the questions and provide an appropriate answerSystem should be able to determine the various forms in which a typical FAQ question could be mapped to the relevant answer.Participants agreed that the expert system was not only easy to use2.6.2 A Self-Learning Fuzzy separate Event System for HIV/AIDS Treatment Regimen choiceThe HI virus mutates often and so a patient has to be frequently changing their medication course. And because of the strict drug adherence guidelines, it therefore becomes desirable to have a treatment- decision support system that is capable of self-learning.Basing on the fuzzy tr enchant event system (FDES) theory, a self-learning HIV/AIDS regimen pickaxe system for the initial round of combination antiretroviral therapy, which is one of the most composite plant therapies in medicine, was developed 12.The system consists of a treatment objectives classifier, fuzzy finite state machine models for treatment regimens, and a genetic-algorithm-based optimizer. System focuses on the four historically popular regimens with 32 associated treatment objectives involving the four most grand clinical variables (potency, adherence, adverse effects, and future drug options).Advantages of the A Self-Learning Fuzzy trenchant Event System for HIV/AIDS Treatment Regimen fillingHigher flexibility and scalabilityEasier knowledge upgrade for accommodating fast treatment strategy evolution with minimal system modification.Challenges of the A Self-Learning Fuzzy Discrete Event System for HIV/AIDS Treatment Regimen SelectionPatient-specific medical simulation raises several m oral, ethical and policy questions that need to be answered before the methodologies can be put to widespread use.2.6.3 A grid-based HIV expert systemThis system is for physicians to provide an adaptive interactive advice on treatment applied to drug resistant HI virus. Its knowledge base comprises of distributed data from infectious disease patient databases, literature on in-vitro and in-vivo pharmaceutical data, mutation databases, clinical trials, simulations and medical expert knowledge.The research uses a class of statistical and numerical methods to identify relationships between HIV genetic sequences and antiviral resistance to investigate consistency of results. Access to and integration of data is through with(p) through existing Internet servers and emerging grid-based frameworks like Globus 13.Advantages of the grid-based HIV expert systemCellular automata-based simulations are used to predict the drug doings overtimeLimitations of grid-based HIV expert systemLittle d ata privacy. peeled clinical information is often kept on highly just hospital networks2.6.4 HIVPCES a WWW-based HIV patient care expert systemDiagnosing HIV-patients and prescribing the correct drug regimen can be a complex task whose outcome is dependent on a large number of variables. The cost of an incorrectly administered drug even for a very short time can be enormous the HIV virus has specific drugs that can manage its growth at different levels of its life cycle.HIVPCES is a WWW-based HIV patient care expert system. It is an interactive expert system to diagnose HIV patients, and is managed centrally and accessed either as part of an intranet, or as an Internet site.781273The user interface has been carefully intentional to provide a high-level of interaction and therefore improve some of the current limitations of Web applications. The system comprises three modules(1) A patient self-monitoring ain diary, to create a follow-up patient record(2) A data analysis and visua lisation tool and(3) A section to allow patients to ask for advising and remote doctor support. abstractAdvantages of a WWW-based HIV patient care expert systemProvides health professionals with new means for tele-monitoring and tele-caring patients.Limitations of a WWW-based HIV patient care expert systemLow system aegisUsers anonymity features are required but hard to incorporate in this clinical domain.2.7 Outline of proposed systemIn the vast world of medical expert systems there is little attention given to HIV /AIDS and when the topic does get acknowledged, little focus is put into the treatment and much more attention on the common FAQs about the virus.This system aims to boil down on HIV/AIDS suffering patients and offer advice on accessory natural treatments such as herbal medicines that these patients can use. Unlike some of the current existing systems, which look at drug adherence plan, i.e. dwindling the users down to only, those on the HAART program, the proposed s ystem can be used by patients whose CD4 count has not yet plummeted therefore allows the patient to have a informed decision on how to maintain a healthy life and have a boosted immune system.Proposed system will offer information on particular herbs, that is, the name, healing effects and the contra-indications and explanations for every herb it advises.Advantages of proposed systemCaters for both physicians and patientsCaters for patients not yet on the HAART program, thus serves a wider user rangeKnowledge base is an integrated pocket billiards of various expert views therefore each answer supplied is about 85%System is a web based application, which is easily accessible from any computer or location with Internet access.2.8 ConclusionThe collected information above was used for the design and methodology of the proposed system. This chapter reviewed the domain in study i.e. HIV/AIDS, expert systems and a review of systems currently in existence. The following chapters of the do cument consist of the integration and modification of the gathered literature.