Saturday, March 30, 2019

Malaysian Tourists Visiting To Thailand Tourism Essay

Malayan Tourists Visiting To Thailand Tourism EssayTourism has been considered as an application of global importance. It brings benefits to a country in term of social and economic. Recently, tourism appears to be an increasingly cardinal industry in some shore beas such as Danok in southern Thailand. Cross take a hop tourism is often proposed by g overnments as an incentive for economic developing. thitherfore, many touring car ends follow a swing out boundaries. For example, there argon a lot of winsome restaurants and entertainment provided in Danok, Southern Thailand. B lodge-crossing points that join conterminous countries jetly go bad hives of worldwideist economic figureivity (Kenneth, R. Lord, Sanjay Putrevu and H. G. Parsa, 2004). agree to Andriesse (2008), he states that in year 1994, the Malayan South-North highway reached the Thailand call up, later on which Thai authorities upgraded the way to Hat Yai. Bukit Kayu Hitam (north of Changlun) and Da nok (south of Sadao) remove be progress thriving line of crops centers. accord to Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), the genius of political boundaries and the relationships amidst nigh countries usually create the types of phaeton loves that exist in redact regions. Consumers living deep down a man durationable ask of the bump into cross to the neighboring country for such diverse activities as shopping, entertainment, sightseeing, work-related become, or merely the prospect of a contrastive or unpopular route between devil points. overly that, a new die trend and patterns involving local demonstrate communities and other strikeers and tourists using adjoin passes emerged. These trends intensify with economic and sh are growth in jar against playing areas. For example, cross border tourism is popular among Malayan tourists callable to easy of crossing to the border of Thailand. Moreover, the application of a border pass is cheap and easy precisely the border pass just available for Malaysians who born in Perlis, Kedah, Penang and Perak only. For those who indigence to apply for border pass, they just shoot to submit two bye sizing photos, one photocopy of identification card and RM 10. Then, they clear exit the border pass immediately.As tourists are permitted to cross the border easy, the growth of tourism on both sides is greatly promoted, and touristic areas ultimately abut the edge on both sides. With growing cross border tourism, consumers puke be segmented based on demographics characteristics that reflecting a scattericular emphasis on certain activities or shopping demands determined from specific take onfully.Figure 1 The Thai-Malaysian borderlands.Problem statementProfiling of Malaysian tourists see to border areas is not widely study among look. fit to Mark P. Hampton (2009), cross-border tourism between neighboring states is comparatively unexplored in the writings as cited by timothy and Tosun in 2003. Besides that, tally to Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), belles-lettres on tourism in the border areas between Thailand and Malaysia is scarce. Moreover, much attention of the academics has been paid on the historical aspects (Koch, 1977 Numnonda, 1967), whereas other works focused on the political conflicts in Southern Thailand (Dulyakasem, 1981 Haemindra, 1976, 1977 Surin Pitsuwan, 1982). at that placefore, weeny is known just about the determinant of Malaysian tourists style that dress downing to the borderland of Thailand.The general impression is to a greater extent Malaysian tourists flock to Thailand. fit to government sources on tourists who crossed the border in 2001, the number of Thai tourists visiting Malaysia was 660,888 magic spell the number of Malaysian tourists visiting Thailand was 1,239,698 (Tepsongkroh, Praman, 2007, pp.8). This showed that the ratio of close two Malaysians crossed the border to Thailand than every one Thai tourist visiting to Malaysia. Thus, it is measurable to find out the reasons of why Malaysian tourists same(p) transit to the border of Thailand.It is significant to understand the tourism patterns of Malaysian tourists. However, little systematic confirmable re seek has been conducted to contribute to an understanding of the demographic characteristics, pauperizations and style of Malaysian tourists cross to Thailand border. thitherfore, there exists a scuttle in the empirical fix available about the conclusiveness making factors that play Malaysian tourists cross the border to Thailand and there is a need to fill this gap of empirical knowledge.enquiry objectivesTo profile Malaysian tourists visiting to Thailand by their demographic and conk patterns.To understand the motivations of Malaysian tourists visiting to Thailand.To evaluate the take aim of propitiation of tourists regarding the operate and facilities provided at tourist end points at the border sites between Thailand and Malaysia. research questio nsWhat are the socio-demographic characteristics and voy maturate patterns of Malaysian tourists?What are the motivational factors that enamour Malaysian tourists visit to Thailand?What kind of facilities and assistances that fulfill Malaysian tourists to revisit Thailand?Research hypothesisH0 There is a relationship between Malaysian tourists socio-demographic characteristics and their work patterns.H1 There is no relationship between Malaysian tourists socio-demographic characteristics and their motivate patterns.H0 There is a relationship between motivational factors and Malaysian tourists visit to Thailand.H1 There is no relationship between motivational factors and Malaysian tourists visit to Thailand.H0 There is a relationship between Malaysian tourists blessedness and their ratiocination to revisit Thailand.H1 There is no relationship between Malaysian tourists satisfaction and their decision to revisit Thailand.Dependent Variable determination makingTo decide whether to travel or notIndependent VariableSocio-demographic characteristics needSatisfaction theoryual frameworkFigure 1 Variables used in this study commentary of key termsCross border tourism Cross border tourism can be imitate from the neo-classical economics theoretical gather up framework based on an man-to-man/consumer visiting neighboring countries with the mark of directly consuming goods and services which are cheaper in that country and/or are unavailable in the country of origin (Witt Witt, 1992).Socio-demographic Socio-demographic are the characteristics of a human population. Socio-demographic variables such as age, income, nationality and education absorb been considered as relatively usable, since they are easy to measure (Lawson, 1994) and they are determine as take away determinants of tourist behavior (Kastenholz, 2002 Baloglu Brinberg, 1997 Gitelson Kerstetter, 1990).Profiling In this study, profiling can be defined as the act of collecting helpful infor mation about the demographic characteristics of Malaysian tourists in order to give a exposition of their travel pattern (Oxord, 7th edition). In addition, profile of visitors is providing a go understanding to forecast of travel behavior (Suleiman, J. S and Mohamed, B., 2011). want Motivation can be described as the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced as a proceeds of an unfulfilled need (Schiffman Kanuk, 2000). The concept behind the motivation theory is that mess are carryn by internal motivates (called push factors) and attracted to finis attributes (called get out factors) when making their travel decisions (Dann, 1977).Satisfaction Satisfaction can be defined as a judgment that a intersection or service feature, or the product or service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment (Oliver, 1997) or as an overall valuation of a purchase (Fornell, 1992). Besides that, Engel et al. (199 5) verbalise that satisfaction was an outcome experience that at least met or exceeded expectations.Decision making Leads to the terminal excerpt of a travel destination which is influenced by a number of psychological (internal) and non-psychological (external) variables (Dellaert, Etterma Lindh, 1998).DelimitationSmall sample size due to lack of manpowerAlthough the population is large, this study only represents a small group of Malaysian tourists who visit to Thailand through immigration border checkpoint particularly in Bukit Kayu Hitam, Kedah only. Data collection cannot cover all the respondents due to lack of manpower to distribute questionnaires and collect data.Cooperation from respondents seems to be difficultIn order to obtain accuracy data that cover many respondents different in terms of demographic, the trace should be conducted on weekend because well-nigh(prenominal) of the Malaysian tourists will visit to Thailand during weekend. However, the congestion pro blem always occurs at the immigration border checkpoint in Bukit Kayu Hitam oddly during weekend. Therefore, the cooperation from respondents seems to be difficult. The respondents are not willing to answer the questionnaire because they want to rush back home after waiting a long queue at the immigration border checkpoint. Besides that, some of the respondents are not willing to response because they are not well-versed in using English.Limited stemma and time-consumingThe questionnaire survey in this study involves a high cost and long time. The research need to go more than once times in order to cover as many different respondents and to collect accuracy data. However, the transference fee forthe route from UUM to Bukit Kayu Hitam is quite expensive and there is limited fund provided for conducting this survey.Significance of this studyThis study is expected to contribute to an understanding of travel pattern of Malaysian tourists who travel to borderland of Thailand by exam ining their demographic characteristic, motivation and satisfaction. The results of the study help tourism foodstuffers in Thailand conk out understand Malaysian tourists travel pattern. Besides that, the results of this study are expected to present important selling implications for Thailand in efforts to segment and target Malaysian travelers. For the policy master of Thailand, they can improve their facilities and build appropriate facilities in border area in order to attract more Malaysian tourists and pander their inevitably. On the other hand, this study also can help tourism marketers in Malaysia to rectify understand the attraction and facilities available in Thailand that attract Malaysian tourists. Therefore, the marketers can develop new tourist attraction or better facilities in Malaysia in order to attract the Thai people come to visit Malaysia and decr easing the turn tail of Malaysians to Thailand. In addition, this study also contributes the knowledge on cr oss border study.Chapter IILiterature ReviewThis chapter look intos the literature in the context of this study. Related literature in this chapter is focused on cross border tourism in tourism studies, socio demographic characteristics, tourists motivation and tourists satisfaction.Firstly, this chapter reviews the literature on cross border tourism. Secondly, this chapter discusses previous research on socio-demographic characteristic and analyzing the relationship between socio-demographic characteristic and tourists travel pattern. Thirdly, this chapter will review the literature on tourists motivation and the relationship between tourists motivation and choice of destination. Finally, this chapter reviews the literature on tourists satisfaction and identifies the relationship among tourists satisfaction and attributes of destinations.Cross border tourismAccording to Mark P. Hampton (2009), there is no agreed description of cross- border tourism, but here, and following Timoth y and Butler (1995), it is proposed that a sidereal day lurch (whether leisure, business, VFR or grocery shopping) is a form of tourism if it crosses an international border. On the other hand, Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), cited from Witt Witt (1992) say that cross-border tourism can be modeled from the neo-classical economics theoretical demand framework based on individual tourist/consumer visiting neighboring countries with the purpose of directly consuming goods and services which are cheaper in that country and/or are unavailable in the country of origin. Border-crossing points that join adjacent countries commonly become hives of international economic activity (Kenneth, R. Lord, Sanjay Putrevu and H. G. Parsa, 2004). Consumers living within a manageable drive of the border cross to the neighboring country for such diverse activities as shopping, entertainment, sightseeing, work-related travel, or merely the prospect of a different or less- traveled route between two points .In addition, it is suggested that any working description of cross border tourism also requires an element of geographical law of proximity such as seen between the US and Canada, or Singapore and Malaysia or Malaysia and Thailand (Hampton, M.P., 2009). In other words, cross border tourism requires a common border. Besides that, the ease of cross border linkages is significant. As tourists are permitted to cross the border easily, the growth of tourism on both sides is greatly promoted, and touristic areas eventually abut the demarcation on both sides (Ahmad Puad, M. S. Badaruddin, M. Kong-Yew, W, 2005). Mark P. Hampton (2009) describe that Frances succeeder in attracting 76 million international arrivals in 2005 due to the ease of border crossing with neighboring EU countries. Moreover, Timothy (1995) say that the level of attractive feature of border areas for tourists depends on a number of factors including the natural, social, heathen surroundings near the border and the degree of freedom or difficulty in crossing it.According to Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), cross border tourism provides interesting perspectives across disciplines. Matinez (1994) looked at the cross-border interaction in terms of pattern of human trend between adjacent countries. His assessment of the interaction fell into four part typology. Firstly, alienated borderlands are the ones where day-to-day colloquy and interaction are close to entirely absent. Secondly, coexistent borderlands are those where the bound is slightly open to marginal levels of interaction. Thirdly, interdependent borderlands are characterized by willingness between adjacent countries to establish cross-frontier networks and partnerships. Finally, combine borderlands are install where all significant political and economic barriers live been abolished, resulting in free flow of goods and people (Matinez, 1994). Therefore, from Matinezs (1994) perspective, it can be give tongue to that boundaries are usually viewed as barriers to interaction, both perceptually and in reality. In many cases, they may be regarded as lines of contact and cooperation between corresponding or dissimilar cultural, economic, and social systems.Timothy (2001) defined some of the connections between boundaries and tourism, which are three-fold typology of spatial relationships between borders and tourists, as shown in the following situations(a) The boundary line is distant from tourist areas(b) A tourist zone exists adjacent to the boundary on only one side(c) Tourist zones that prolong across, or meet at, bordersAccording to Timothy (2001), in the first case, the frontier functions as a barrier or simple line of transit. Thus, the influence of the border depends largely on its degree of permeability. This is a common phenomenon for borders of many countries having a good relationship with the adjacent states. In the second case, in addition to being attracted to the tourist-oriented side, some p eople will be attracted to visit the other side as well, which presents opportunities for tourism development to spill over into the non-tourist side of the border. In the third instance, there may be communication and cooperation between the two sides so that the entire nature of cultural attraction system operates as one entity, or conversely, the border may act as a significant barrier altogether (Timothy, 2001).Cross border tourism is influenced by governmental policy and socio-economic factors such as trade treaties, sales tax rebates, inflation, exchange rates, shopping preferences and many other factors (Tepsongkroh, P., 2007). Border-related policies, differences in administrative structures on opposite sides, and the physical barrier creates by borders can affect many aspects of tourism, including travel motivations and decision making, infrastructure development, marketing and publicity and place image (Timothy, 2001). According to Praman Tepsongkroh (2007), such obstacles can hinder the flow of tourists and can help to shape the physical and socio-economic development of tourism in the destination regions elsewhere, as well as at the Thai and Malaysian border.Socio-demographic characteristicsAccording to Thirathanaphak, C. Akethammasiri, K. and Chainimit, P. (2009), socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral indicators are commonly used in tourism research to profile tourists by age, gender, income, marital place, occupations, education or ethnic background. These indicators are easy to identify and use in marketing decisions (Yavuz, 1994). Moreover, according to Handler, I (2009), he said that Pearce, (2005) Kotler, (2006), Middleton Clarke, (2007) Dickman, (1999) stated that one of the most common ways to divide tourists is by demographic factors, i.e. age, gender, education, occupation, expenditure or their geographic location. Furthermore, according to Suleiman, J.S Mohamed, B. (2011), generally socio-demographic variables such as age, income, nationality and education bring in been considered as relatively usable, since they are easy to measure (Lawson, 1994) and they are place as appropriate determinants of tourist behavior (Kastenholz, 2002 Baloglu Brinberg, 1997 Gitelson Kerstetter, 1990).In addition, according to Beerli, A. Martin, D. (2003), the individuals private characteristics, such as gender, age, occupation, education and social class, are internal inputs that influence the perceptions of places. When Walmsley and Jenkins (1993) studied the perceived image of different tourist resorts in Australia, they found that the image of some places differed depending on visitors gender and age. Besides that, Baloglu and McCleary (1999) found that an individuals age and level of education influenced the perceived image of mingled tourist destinations.According to Aswin Sangpikul, (2008), the literature review indicates that there may be a crew of socio-demographic variables that influence tourists behaviors. How ever, the results of previous studies imply that different sample groups may consecrate different socio-demographic factors influencing their travel-related behaviors (Sangpikul, A., 2008). Furthermore, according to Jang, S.C. Yu, L. Pearson, T.E. (2003), the socio-demographic profiles and trip-related characteristics of the visitors alter tourism marketers to understand who they are and how they lead on travel. descent between socio-demographics characteristics and tourist travel patternSocio-demographic variables are the primary factors that influence peoples travel-related behavior (Zimmer et al., Jang et al., Jang and Wu, 2006). These variables may include age, gender, education, income, economic status and wellness status. Zimmer et al. (1995) revealed that age, income and education emerged as the main variables that pardon booking versus non-participation in travel activities. Their study indicated that income and education influenced travelers when choosing nearby or f arther-away destinations, with travelers who were better educated and who had more disposable income being more in all probability to travel farther from home. These results were echoed by Sirisukul (1998), who found that Thai people with a high education and higher incomes were more likely to be motivated to record in leisure activities than those who were less educated and earned less income.Silberberg (1995) identified the cultural/heritage tourist as one who earned more money and spent more money while on pass was more highly educated than the general public was more likely to be female than male and inclineed to be in older age categories. Furthermore, Kerstetter, Confer and Graefe (2001) found that tourists with an interest in visiting heritage or cultural sites tend to stay longer, spend more per trip, are more highly educated and have a higher average yearly income than the general tourists.In addition, Brining (1995) found that women adopted safer approaches than men w hen it came to making raving mad consumer decisions. Barsky Labagh (1997) also reported a lower risk propensity amongst women than men.Besides that, Anderson (1993) stated that tourists ages are closely associated with the meaning tourists attached to crafts and to the purpose crafts served for the owners. According to Littrell (1990) showed that young tourists often nurtured crafts that reminded them of exciting shopping encounters and active tourism experiences, while older tourists preferred craft items that would bring them aesthetic merriment through their contemplation at home.Furthermore, a study of tourist dark markets in Taiwan carried out by Hsieh and Chang (2004) found that female visitors tend to come with friends or families rather than alone or single visitors expending more time and money compared to married ones.Tourists motivationAccording to French, et al. (2000), a focus on motivation provides a complex view of various factors to stimulate the travel demands for tourism and embraces both inner needs and wants. These needs and wants reflect perceptions, cultural conditioning and learning. Copper, Shepherd and Westlak (1996) presented Murphys model looking at psychological factors which influence demands (motivations, perceptions and expectations), and how these demanded criteria are linked by intermediaries in the market place (travel agencies and tour operators) with the supply of tourist facilities. Many different categories of motivations have an important influence on travel decision-making they are as follows (Tepsongkroh, P., 2007)Motivation as a purpose and reason for travel vacations (holidays, visiting friends and relatives), business (French, et al., 2000)Motivation as individuals needs and wants Maslows physiologic needs, security needs, social needs and self-esteem needs (Hall, 1998).Maslows Physiological NeedsFigure 2 Maslows physiological needsMotivation as satisfaction through tourist activities (French, et al., 2000). ph ysical motivators are related to rest, sports, recreation and those directly connected with a persons health such as spas and baths. These motivators all have one feature in common, the reduction of tension through activities related to physical factors.Cultural motivators are identified by the propensitys of the traveler to learn about other countries and their art, music, dances, traditions and religions. social motivators include a desire to meet new people, visit friends or relatives.Status and prestige motivators are related to the desire for recognition, attention, power and appreciation, as well as the desire to enhance sexual attractiveness.Motivations as pull and push factor cultural experience, pleasure-seeking/fantasy, and relaxation (Kozak, 2002).Motivation as the legality of the original factors such as relaxation, social and intellectual aspects (Ryan, 1998).Motivation as important to tourist information feelings of pleasure, excitement, relaxation (push factors), an d tourist attractions like sunshine, hearty people, and culture (pull factors) (Goossens, 2000).According to Kau Lim (2005), understanding tourists vacation motives, i.e. why people travel, is an tailor that has been researched extensively. By determining the motivations that influence peoples travel habits and destination selection would enable one to predict their future travel patterns, thereby aid in developing more appropriate marketing strategies to attract them (McGuiggan et al., 1995). Besides that, according to Sangpikul, A (2007), a common and useful theory used to judge tourist motivations is the theory of push and pull motivation as stated by Dann, (1977) Crompton, (1979) Yuan and Mcdonald, (1990) Klenosky, (2002). Moreover, Skourtis, G. Andreou, D. Koniordos, M. Assiouras, I. (2009) cited from Dann (1997), the push factors for a vacation are socio-psychological motives explaining the desire for travel, while the pull factors are motives aroused by the destination explaining the destination choice.According to Kau, A. K. Lim, P. S. (2005), vacation motives can be classified broadly into two main categories, push and pull factors as cited by Crompton, (1979) Dann, (1981). Push factors can be described as internally generated drives, causing the tourist to search for signs in objects, situations and events that contain the promise of reducing prevalent drives (Gnoth, 1997). Pull factors, on the other hand, are those that emerge as a result of the attractiveness of a destination as it is perceived by those with propensity to travel and include both tangible resources, such as beaches, recreation facilities and cultural attractions and travelers perceptions and expectation and marketing image (Uysal and Jurowski, 1994). Push factors have been regarded as useful in explaining the desire for travel, while pull motivations have been used to explain the choice of travel, destination (Crompton, 1979).According to Sangikul, A. (2008), he said that pu sh factors have been thought useful for explaining the desire to go on a vacation, while pull factors help explain the choice of destination as reported by Crompton, (1979). Therefore, Sangikul, A. (2008) said that understanding what motivate peoples travel behavior and destination selection is crucial to predicting their travel decisions and future travel patterns as cited by Cha et al., (1995) Jang and Cai, (2002) Klenosky, (2002) Jang Wu, (2006). Additionally, knowledge about tourist motivation enables tourism marketers to better revenge travelers needs and provide better products and services corresponding to their needs (Crompton, 1979 Jang and Cai, 2002 Jang and Wu, 2006 Sangikul, 2008). kin between tourists motivation and choice of destinationsPizam, Neuman and Reichel (1979) reveal relationships amongst certain motivations and choices related to the trip or destination. According to Prebensen (2006), motivation and the choice of holiday type or activities have been shown to be significantly related. Besides that, Moscardo, Morrison, Pearce, Lang and OLeary (1995) stated that activities are seen as the critical link between tourist motivations and destination choice. Moreover, according to irascibility (2010), activities affect tourists choice of destination through travel motivations. Specifically, activities create a motivation of travelling to a destination and the motivation turns into purchase behavior known as choice of the destination.John and Susan (1999) proposed that there are sextette motives, i.e. physical, emotional, personal, personal development, status and cultural motives. According to lien (2010), he said that the impact between motivation and activities can be explained in a different way. Specifically, with physical motivation, individuals prefer to travel destinations where have activities which can satisfy their needs of relaxation or suntans. Besides that, as for emotional motivation, people may insert in activities that can s atisfy their needs for utilization of romance, fantasy and spiritual fulfillment.Prebensen (2007) mentioned in the study that in the carry through of consuming or producing (Holt, 1995) a journey, tourists also experience novel situations, which might result in different choice patterns. Thus, motivations may lead to purchasing behavior, which is destination choosing behavior (Lien, 2010). Individuals who have different motivations may choose the same destinations and they participate similar or different types of activities to satisfy their needs.Tourists SatisfactionTraditional literature within consumer behavior pinpoints that customer satisfaction is the result or the final step of a psychological process from need recognition to valuation of experienced products (Peter and Olson, 1996). Besides that, according to Oliver (1997), satisfaction is defined as a judgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumptio n-related fulfillment. In addition, satisfaction also can be defined as an overall evaluation of a purchase (Fornell, 1992). Moreover, according to Raktida Siri (2009), Engel et al. (1995) stated that satisfaction was an outcome experience that at least met or exceeded expectations.According to Hui, J. (2002) Kozak Rimmington, (2000), tourist satisfaction is important to successful destination marketing because it influences the choice of the destination, the consumption of products and services and the decision to return. Therefore, understanding tourist satisfaction is of utmost important for the tourism industry, especially because of its effect on their future economy (Petrick, 2003). Satisfied tourists tend to herald their positive experience to others (word of mouth) and they tend to buy product repeatedly (Barsky, 1992 Beeho and Prentice, 1997 Hallowell, 1996 Kozak and Rimmington, 2000 Pizam, 1994 Ross, 1993).Raktida Siri (2009), cited from Meng et al. (2006) reason out th at there were nine theories on customer satisfaction expectancy disconfirmation, socialisation or cognitive dissonance, contrast, assimilation contrast, equity, attribution, comparison level, generalized negatively and value perception. Furthermore, among these nine theories, expectation disconfirmation model was accepted the most. Oliver (1980), cited from Kandampully (200) introduced an Expectancy Disconfirmation Model, which was a process of comparison between an expectation and an experience. Satisfaction would occur if the experience met expectation.According to Hui, J. (2002), he said that Chon and Olsen (1991) discovered a goodness of fit coefficient of correlation between tourists expectations about their destination and tourists satisfaction. Then, after tourist has bought the travel service products, if the evaluation of their experience of the travel product is better than their expectations, they will be satisfied with their travel experience.Besides that, according to Prebensen (2004), by including tourist travel motives and choices of activities at the destination as well as perception of products into the concept of satisfaction, a better understanding of why people become satisfied in addition to how satisfied they are is possible to identify, which further includes a better understanding concerning why people intent to recommend and re-buy the trip.Relationship between tourists satisfaction and destination attributesHuh (2002) stated that there is a need to investigate the relationship between destination attributes and tourists satisfaction from the tourists perspective in order to gain an in-depth understanding of tourists attributes and behavior after they visit a tourist destination. According to Fornell (

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