Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Health And Social Care Essay

Ventilator associated pneumonia is a serious infection impacting both the patient, health care installation, and staff. It is the 2nd most common healthcare-acquired infection ( Koening, 2006 ) . Incidence of VAP is estimated every bit high as 65 % and it occurs in up to 28 % of patients who have been on the ventilator 48 hours or longer ( Powers, 2006 ) . The mortality rate associated with VAP scopes from 12-50 % ( Sona et al, 2009 ) . Studies on the mortality rates of VAP besides show that patients who develop VAP have a 2.2 to 4.3 times higher hazard of decease compared to other automatically ventilated patients who do non hold pneumonia ( Powers, 2006 ) . A twosome affects that VAP has upon the patient and health care installation are clip of hospitalization and health care costs. Ventilator associated pneumonia causes the length of a infirmary stay to increase significantly. It can increase the hospitalization clip anyplace from four to nineteen yearss longer ( Powers, 2006 ) . This excess hospitalization can do extra emphasis for the patient and their wellness. As the incidence of VAP causes longer hospitalizations to happen, patient and wellness attention installation costs ascent besides. It is estimated that the mean addition in infirmary costs is about $ 57,000 per VAP happening ( Powers, 2006 ) . There are besides increases to the infirmary that occur due to additions in supplies used, staff that is utilised, and more medicines used. Since VAP has such a negative impact upon patients and health care installations many intercessions have been tried to forestall the incidence of VAP. One intercession utilized is maintaining the caput of the patient ‘s bed raised to at least 30 grades to forestall aspiration of bacteriums in secernments. Another is â€Å" sedation holidaies † which consists of disrupting the patient ‘s sedation medicine until patient shows marks of watchfulness, to measure if patients can be weaned off the ventilator more rapidly. Other noteworthy intercessions that have been utilized in the yesteryear and some in today ‘s pattern every bit good include: suctioning secernments, good sterile techniques such as manus lavation, and unwritten attention ( Pruitt & A ; Jacobs, 2006 ) . Patients are continually developing VAP and holding complications from the infection. If it is found that everyday unwritten attention, defined as dentitions brushing with the usage of an unwritten disinfectant within this paper, can cut down the incidence of VAP in automatically ventilated patients it could diminish length of infirmary stay, maintain costs due to incidence of VAP down for both patient and healthcare establishment, every bit good as lessening mortality rates in these patients. Clinical Question Ventilator associated pneumonia occurs manner excessively frequently in the infirmary scene. It causes important emphasis on the patient ‘s already debatable wellness position. The author of this paper has observed many nurses who are argus-eyed in supplying unwritten attention to ventilated patients, but has besides observed other nurses who forego unwritten attention as if it non of import and has no affects upon the patient ‘s wellness. This made the author inquiry what the existent effectivity of unwritten attention has upon cut downing the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia in automatically ventilated patients. This issue is really relevant to nursing because the ultimate end of a nurse is to assist the patient have the best possible result. Trying to accomplish the best possible result for the patient makes infection control is a really high precedence for nurses. Patients who have infections are more prone to acquire other infections and necessitate more nursing attention and more clip to retrieve from their unwellnesss. Although VAP will go on to happen in patients, and unwritten attention is non a remedy for ventilator associated pneumonia, there is valuable information included in research surveies included within this paper that shows the incidence of VAP can be reduced in automatically ventilated patients by implementing everyday unwritten attention.Empirical Review 1The intent of the first survey, conducted by Sona et Al, 2005 was to find the consequence of a everyday unwritten attention protocol upon incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The research design was a quantitative, experiment, quasi-experimental survey which utilized a non-equivalent control group before and after the design. The survey had no conceptual model stated by the research workers. Within the survey, the variables of significance to the clinical inquiry being looked at were the everyday unwritten attention protocol and the ventilator-associated p neumonia rates. The independent variable of new unwritten attention protocol was defined as the mechanical cleaning of the dentition or gums to take plaque with a tooth coppice and the application of an unwritten disinfectant. The survey went on to farther discourse the protocol as brushing the dentition for one to two proceedingss with a regular toothbrush and so using.12 % chlorahexidine to all unwritten surfaces every 12 hours. The dependent variable was the ventilator associated pneumonia rates. It was defined as a common infirmary acquired infection and is the taking cause of decease in ICU patients who are ventilator dependent. Ventilator associated pneumonia rates were measured utilizing the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System ( NNIS ) criteria.The dependability nor the cogency of this instrument was addressed within the survey. Another variable that was studied was length of stay. This was merely measured by the figure of yearss that the patient spent within t he ICU after a ventilator associated pneumonia infection occurred ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . This survey took topographic point at Barnes Jewish Hospital on a 24 bed intensive attention unit ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . The survey focused peculiarly on patients that were admitted to the surgical intensive attention unit ( SICU ) whom required mechanical airing. The topics consisted of all patients who had mechanical airing between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2005. Subjects were chosen utilizing non-probability convenience sampling. The pre-intervention was implemented for patients that were admitted between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2005. The size of this sample was 777 patients. The pre-intervention stage consisted of standard attention the nurse provided to the patients, no alterations were provided during this clip ; lone observation took topographic point. One month before the terminal of the pre-intervention stage all nursing staff working on the SICU were debriefed and educated on the purposes of the survey every bit good as the new everyday unwritten attention protocol by two clinical nurse specializers and a nurse pedagogue. This was to assist forestall disagreements in the intercession. During the station intercession stage of the survey which took topographic point between June 2004 until May 2005 the sample size consisted of 871 patients who were all nil per os ( NPO ) ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) On June 1, 2004 the new everyday unwritten attention protocol was implemented ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . The intervention/protocol consisted of the nurse brushing the dentition of the patient for one to two proceedingss with a regular toothbrush, rinsing the oral cavity with H2O and suctioning it out, and so utilizing 15 milliliter of.12 % chlorahexidine to cleanse the oral cavity. The intercession was repeated every 12 hours by the registered nursing staff. Conformity of the protocol was estimated to be about 90 % and the execution was carried out for 12 months before consequences were analyzed ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . For this survey the degree of significance was expressed utilizing p-values. A p value of less than.05 was considered important ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . For the information analysis, two statistical trials were used: The Mantel-Haesnel Chi Squared. After the analysis of informations, it was determined that p=.04 demoing that the everyday unwritten attention protocol did do a important decrease in the ventilator-associated pneumonia rates within the topics studied. The pre-intervention rate for VAP was 5.2 infection per 1000 ventilator yearss while post-intervention rate for VAP showed 2.4 infections per 1000 ventilator yearss ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . Other statistics for the survey showed the patient ‘s figure of yearss the patient was on ventilator was decreased ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . From the statistical analysis within the survey, the research workers derived certain findings and decisions ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . One of the findings was that the station intercession group had tendencies toward shorter clip on the ventilator, every bit good as length of infirmary stay. The chief determination within the survey found that when the everyday unwritten attention protocol was being utilised, the rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia were significantly decreased. The research worker makes it a point to province that although the determination suggests that the execution of the protocol reduces rate of VAP this can non be proven ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . This survey is a nonrandomized controlled test. The quality of this grounds was converting and important. It was a consistent survey and it is considered to be of Level II quality. Certain immaterial variables that could hold had an consequence upon the result of the survey, as identified by the pupil, could hold been the status the patient was in before the ICU admittance, any preexistent conditions that could change wellness and increase the hazard of infection, and the nurses attitude toward executing unwritten attention. Although the survey was a strong and consistent one, it did hold both strengths and failings. There were no strengths identified by the research workers. However, the pupil did place some strengths within this survey. One of the first strengths was the instruction that was given to the nursing staff prior to the execution of the protocol. This helped the survey to be more valid by increasing the continuity of the attention and manner the nurses performed the protocol. The other strength of the survey was the design being a quasi-experimental. This is because quasi-experimental surveies normally can be generalized to the population that is being studied. Failings that were addressed within the survey by the research workers was that the research workers themselves did non measure the dentitions brushing part of the intercession to do certain that the nurses were being consistent in the manner they did it, and if the nurses performed it for the right sum of clip ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . This resulted in the deficiency of control over nursing techniques. Another failing of the survey recognized by the research worker was the survey did non take into history the alteration in the patient population over the continuance of the survey ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . Some weaknesses the pupil identified within this survey was that the survey was really susceptible to bias because no blinding or cover was used within this survey. Everyone knew what was happening and this could hold had the research workers looking as if the intercession helped more than it really did. Within the survey the research worker did non turn to if the survey could be generalized. However, the author of the paper believes that this survey can be generalized. The intercession is a really simple one. Most civilizations have no jobs with utilizing unwritten attention. Besides, most infirmaries have intensive attention units and/or ventilator dependant patients which were the population within the survey. This intercession within the survey does non hold a batch of hazards. The lone hazards mentioned were possible tooth staining from the antimicrobic and hapless gustatory sensation ( Sona et al. , 2009 ) . Besides, this intercession is really executable. To implement unwritten attention there is no particular preparation needed, although instruction should be provided. The unwritten attention modus operandi is a comparatively speedy intercession that takes no more than 5 proceedingss to implement, which would let nurses with busy agendas to still be able to execute the interc ession. Besides, this intercession is really low cost compared to the cost of ventilator associated pneumonia instances. Therefore, the cost-benefit ratio would be a great benefit to health-care installations. This survey suggests that unwritten attention can be really effectual in diminishing the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia rates. Although a really valid survey, one survey is non adequate grounds to implement a new protocol into a nurse ‘s pattern. One must look for more surveies and literature to back up the determination in order to try to implement it into pattern. The following survey that was appraised by the author of this paper seems to back up the findings that were found in this survey.Empirical Review 2The following survey examined by the author of this paper was a research survey conducted by Mori et al.,2005. The intent of the survey was to find if unwritten attention of automatically ventilated patients contributed to the bar and decrease of the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia ( Mori et al. , 2005 ) . The research design utilized for this survey was a quantitative, experimental, quasi-experimental which used a non-equivalent before and afte r attack. Within the survey the research worker did non province any theoretical model to steer the survey. The survey was non randomized, and used a non-probability convenience sample method ( Mori et al. , 2005 ) . The research survey took topographic point on a medical/surgical intensive attention unit in an urban university infirmary which was non named by the research worker ( Mori et al. , 2005 ) . The population of involvement was ventilator dependent patients with tracheal cannulation. Since topics were chosen by convenience sampling, they were chosen as they became available on the unit. Inclusion standards for topics were that they must hold been having mechanical airing and have tracheal cannulation. Exclusion standards for the survey were patient ‘s whose conditions contraindicated unwritten attention, patients with terrible shed blooding inclinations, or patients with iodine allergic reactions. The sample for the unwritten attention group was patients admitted to the intensive attention unit between January 1997 and December 2002, and consisted of 1,248 patients. The sample for the non-oral attention group, or the control, was patients admitted during January of 1995 until Dece mber of 1996 ; this sample size was 414 topics ( Mori et al. , 2005 ) For this survey, the independent variable was the unwritten attention being delivered ( Mori et al. , 2005 ) . This variable was defined as cleaning of the unwritten pit three times a twenty-four hours by nursing employees following the specified new protocol. The protocol was that the nurse would look into the patient ‘s critical marks and so make unwritten suctioning, followed by positioning the patient ‘s caput to the side to forestall suffocation and find the status of the unwritten mucous membrane. After this the nurse would clean the oral cavity with a 20-fold diluted solution of providone-iodine mouthwash ( antimicrobic ) . Then the usage of a standard toothbrush was used to brush the dentition ; the patient ‘s oral cavity was rinsed with H2O. Directly following the brushing and rinse, the providone-iodine was utilized once more by swobing the oral cavity and dentition. Finally, unwritten suctioning was done one concluding clip. The dependent variable in the survey was the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia. This variable was defined as a hospital-acquired pneumonia that becomes present after 48 hours of the patient being automatically ventilated. Ventilator associated pneumonia was suspected if spot infiltrates were present upon the patient ‘s chest x-ray and two of the following were present: a temperature of 100.4 grades Fahrenheit, white blood cell count of 10,000 M3 or higher, or pussy respiratory secernments were observed. A definite diagnosing of ventilator associated pneumonia, which was used for grounds of the incidence in this survey, was determined by trancheobronchial secernment civilizations demoing a consequence of 1+ or more. Other variables were continuance of hospitalization defined as length of stay measured by the figure of yearss and the causative agent of the pneumonia identified by bacterial civilizations ( Mori et al. , 2005 ) . Reliability and Validity of the civilizations and skiagraphy used to m ensurate if ventilator associated pneumonia was present and causative agent were non addressed within the survey by the research worker, so the cogency is unknown.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Food Tourism

World Tourism Organization, 2012 Secretary General: Taleb Rifai Executive Director for Competitiveness, External Relations and Partnerships: Marcio Favilla L. de Paula Editorial team: Dmitriy Ilin, Project Manager, Global Report on Food Tourism Inaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant, TANGIBLE – Tourism Industry Consultants Peter Jordan Series editor: UNWTO would like to sincerely thank all those who contributed material to this report. Copyright  © 2012, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Global Report on Food Tourism Published by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Madrid, Spain.First printing: 2012 All rights reserved. Printed in Spain. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinions whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Tourism Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or bound aries. Photos by UNWTO and Dreamstime World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Calle Capitan Haya, 42 28020 Madrid Spain Citation: World Tourism Organization (2012), Global Report on Food Tourism, UNWTO, Madrid Tel. (+34) 915 678 100 Fax: (+34) 915 713 733 Website: www. unwto. org E-mail: [email  protected] org publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, work and is pleased to consider permissions, licensing, and translation requests related to UNWTO publications. Permission to photocopy UNWTO material in Spain must be obtained through: Calle Monte Esquinza, 14 28010 Madrid Spain Fax: (+34) 913 08 63 27 Website: www. edro. org E-mail: [email  protected] org For authorization of the reproduction of UNWTO works outside of Spain, please contact one of CEDRO’s partner organizations, with which bilateral agreements are in place (see: http://www. cedro. org/en). For all remaining countries as well as f or other permissions, requests should be addressed directly to the World Tourism Organization. For applications see: http://www. unwto. org/pub/rights. htm. Global Report on Food Tourism CONTENTSForeward Taleb Rifai / 4 Introduction / 5 Gastronomy’s importance in the development of tourism destinations in the world / 6 Global trends on food tourism / 10 What our Members say / 12 CASE STUDIES International Initiatives Euro-toques in Europe: 3500 artisan cooks in defence of â€Å"eating well† / 18 Food and the Tourism Experience / 20 Foda / 22 Tourism Destinations Azerbaijan: aromas and tastes of the East with a European twist / 26 Brazil and its Paths of Flavour / 28 Egypt: food tourism experience / 30 Food and wine tourism in Georgia / 32 Kazakhstan: tracing the country’s ancient history through its food / 34 Gastronomic tourism in Korea – Globalizing Hansik / 36 A taste of Moscow / 38 Malaysia: at the cross-roads of Asian food culture / 40 Morning pilau, or peculiarities of Uzbek cuisine / 42 Business organizations Tasting Spain: the creation of a product club for gastronomic tourism / 46 Food and wine tourism: Challenges and Opportunities / 48 Sustainable gastronomy: Prospects for the Future / 50 Fine dining: an â€Å"awakening to art de vivre† Relais & Chateaux-style / 52 A brief summary of the SETE study â€Å"Gastronomy & the Marketing of Greek Tourism† / 54 Educational organizations The Basque Culinary Center / 58 Safety Food – the Brazilian Experience / 60 Presentation of the B. E. S. T. concept / 62 Foreword Taleb Rifai, Secretary-General, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) For many of the world’s billions of tourists, returning to familiar destinations to enjoy tried and tested recipes, cuisine, gastronomy has become a central part of the tourism experience. Against this background, food tourism has gained increasing attention over the past years. Tourists are attracted to local produce and many destinations are centering their product development and marketing accordingly.With food so deeply connected to its origin, this focus allows destinations to market themselves as truly unique, appealing to those travelers who look to feel takes a closer look at the links between tourism and food, highlighting the importance of this industry to the tourism sector and economies worldwide. Bringing together experiences from some of the world’s top tourism destinations, as well as from food tourism experts, the report offers important insight and recommendations into this growing segment of tourism. Members and other organizations who have contributed to this report. I trust it will serve as a delicious appetizer to the improved knowledge and continued development of food tourism.This is especially important for rural communities, many of which have struggled in the face of rapid urbanization and shifts away from traditional economic sectors. With their proximity to food-producin g lands, rural communities often enjoy a comparative advantage when it comes to serving up traditional fare. Tourism, particularly food tourism, allows these communities to generate income and employment opportunities locally, providing jobs for vineyard tour guides or local chefs, while fuelling other sectors of the local economy such as agriculture. The Global Report on Food Tourism, the latest in the UNWTO Secretary-General, Taleb Rifai 4 UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismThe aim was to try to obtain a series of conclusions regarding some of the initiatives that are going on worldwide in Food Tourism for possible inclusion in the the public sector and businesses about policies for importance of gastronomy in the development of tourism destinations in the world and reviews the global trends in Food Tourism. It also reports on the results of the survey Introduction the current situation of Gastronomic Tourism. The second part of the report presents case studies of Food Tourism. Fi rst, it presents international initiatives such as Eurotoques, an organization of chefs that includes more than 3,500 restaurateurs from 18 countries; the study carried out by the OECD on â€Å"Food and the Tourism Experience†; and the Slow Food movement, which was founded in 1986 and is present in more than 122 countries.In recent years, Food Tourism has grown considerably and has become one of the most dynamic and creative segments of tourism. Both destinations and tourism companies are aware of the importance of gastronomy in order to diversify tourism and stimulate local, regional and national economic development. Furthermore, Food Tourism includes in its discourse ethical and sustainable values based on the territory, the landscape, the sea, local culture, local products, authenticity, which is something it has in common with current trends of cultural consumption. This new volume of the â€Å"AM Reports† series, â€Å"Global Members of the World Tourism Organiz ation (UNWTO), and was produced with the support of Member States, egional and national tourism destinations, such as Brazil, Egypt, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Uzbekistan and Moscow. It also includes the experience of business organizations the management and promotion of Food Tourism of Spain; the Portuguese Institute for Tourism Planning and Development (IPDT); the Hotel and Gastronomy Business Federation of Argentina (FEHGRA); Relais & Chateaux, an exclusive collection of 475 charming hotels and gourmet restaurants in 55 countries; and the Association of Greek Tourism Enterprises (SETE) . In this Report, we have attempted to carry out an analysis of the current situation of Food Tourism, through of tourism and gastronomy professionals with extensive experience in international organizations, in destination training. ducational institutions, such as the Basque Culinary Centre in San Sebastian, the National Confederation of Trade in Goods, Services and Tourism of Brazil (CNCSENAC) and the Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne, on their vision and the role of human resources training in the development of Food Tourism. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 5 Gastronomy’s importance in the development of tourism destinations in the world Carmina Fandos Herrera, Senior Lecturer in Marketing, Universidad de Zaragoza Javier Blanco Herranz, gastronomic tourism? Today, travellers are more experienced, have more disposable income and more leisure time to travel, and thus tourism allows them to escape the daily routine of their usual environment and immerse themselves in a world of freedom and novelty.Thus, more and more tourists in the world are looking for concrete learning experiences, and in this endeavour the gastronomic experience, in highly diverse ways, is playing an increasingly prominent part. Current research in gastronomic tourism is scarce and is mainly focused on wine, and â€Å"oenotourists† are not necessarily the same individuals who engage in othe r, nonoenological gastronomic activities. Gastronomic tourism is an emerging phenomenon that is being developed as a new tourism product due, inter alia, to the fact that according to the specialized literature (among others, Quan and Wang, 2004) over a third of tourist spending is devoted to food. Therefore, the cuisine of the destination is an aspect of utmost importance in the quality of the holiday experience. PhD Student in Marketing, Universidad de Zaragoza sed in the literature is that proposed by Hall and Sharples (2003), according to which food tourism is an experiential trip to a gastronomic region, for recreational or entertainment purposes, which includes visits to primary and secondary producers of food, gastronomic festivals, food fairs, events, farmers’ markets, cooking shows and demonstrations, tastings of quality food products or any tourism activity related to food. In addition, this experiential journey is related to a particular lifestyle that includes exp erimentation, learning from different cultures, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of the qualities or attributes related to tourism products, as well as culinary specialities produced in that region through its consumption.Thus, the experience of gastronomic tourism is considered as such, provided that everything mentioned above constitutes the main reason or motivation to travel for visitors to a particular destination or But even without gastronomy being the main motivation for choosing a destination, the fact is that it is increasingly 6 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism occupying a substantial role as a secondary or partial motivation of tourists in the world (according to recent research, eating in restaurants is the second favourite activity of foreigners visiting the United States and is the number one leisure activity for U. S. travellers when they visit other countries). organized around an effective system of public-private cooperation.Both approaches are in separable and can restaurants and food industries, but also other sectors indirectly related but linked to tourism, creating conditions for improving local employment and the promotion of new outside the scope of the product â€Å"gastronomic tourism†, and adaptable to tourism-motivation dynamics that are increasingly plural and complex. Thus, we can take a step further and say that gastronomic tourism applies to tourists and visitors who plan their trips partially or totally in order to taste the cuisine of the place or to carry out activities related to gastronomy. Gastronomic tourism comprises many different subtypes if we look through the prism of the food or dish in question.Thus we have, for example, offerings related to whisky, cider, cognac, cava, horchata, sake, or tea. Gastronomic routes are becoming without doubt one of the most developed products in this area. A gastronomic route is a system that constitutes a comprehensive and thematic tourism offering, generally branded, and is area (although in reality, gastronomy has no borders), with a series of tourism products or sites, such as factories and restaurants, which are listed in tourism guidebooks dish, generally with differentiated quality, or gastronomic events or activities. The route also informs about other sites of historical interest, thus promoting economic development throughout the area.Therefore, the idea is to bring together different types of tourist attractions and to offer them in a conveniently packaged form so that tourists stay longer in the area than if only one kind of attraction is featured. In our opinion, gastronomic routes will be successful if they manage to activate gastronomic heritage and convert it into food tourism as an attraction for tourists, while at the same time differentiating it from the competition as visitors look for variety, new sensations and authentic experiences. But, any creation or value proposition made to strengthen travel motivations centre d on gastronomy should be underpinned by sustainability principles and practices and Carmina Fandos HerreraGastronomic tourism, lifestyle and tourism motivations Lifestyle is used in tourism to assess involvement in tourism experiences. Researchers have pointed out that culinary tourism is an authentic experience of a sophisticated lifestyle in a pleasant environment, associated with the good life and the economic wellbeing of consuming exclusive, high-quality locally grown products. Tourist motivations constitute a key concept for the design and creation of products and services that add value for tourists. Motivations are related to consumer satisfaction and are considered a key component in understanding the decision-making process of visitors.Thus, several physical or physiological needs (sensory perception and hedonism) security, cultural and social needs, the need to belong or interpersonal needs, the need for prestige (local delicacies), status or self-realization. In additio n, UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 7 the literature posits two dimensions for motivation: the hedonistic, with regard to aesthetic products, and the utilitarian or rational. Tourism destination image and the gastronomic tourism experience Several studies have found that tourists travel to those destinations that have established a reputation as a place to experiment with quality local products. tourist motivations as either internal stimuli or â€Å"push†, or external stimuli or â€Å"pull†.The former are considered from the perspective of demand, and they lead the tourist to travel to gastronomic tourism destinations that often include desires as well as psychological, social and ego-centric needs such as escapism from the daily routine, relaxing with family, rest, exploration and social interaction and affective or emotional bonding. The resources considered pull factors are cultural and natural attractions, special events and festivals, experiences with food pro ducts in the destinations and other opportunities for leisure and entertainment, value, friendliness of residents, gastronomic diversity and variety, attributes or characteristics of the destination such as proximity, etc. whose brand image is connected, with varying levels of intensity, to gastronomic values.By way of example, it is possible to give a non-exhaustive list that includes, among others, Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, USA (especially in areas such as California’s Napa and Sonoma Valleys), Brazil, Peru, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Australia, Chile, Malaysia, Japan, example, that the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece, Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November 2010. As for the gastronomic tourism experience, it can be a number of attributes (attractiveness of the food and environment, quality of service), after a stay in a tourist destination where the tourist engaged in an activity related to gastronomy. The tourist’s perceived value of a particular destination or establishment is therefore multidimensional.Post-experience satisfaction is a critical indicator for assessing the effectiveness or performance of the products and services of the destination. The tourist’s satisfaction with the purchase depends on the product’s performance in relation to the tourist’s expectations. It should be kept in mind that different cultures have different perceptions of satisfaction and evaluation of gastronomy and that high quality of service can result in dissatisfaction among consumers if their expectations had been too high, for example, due to exaggerated advertising. Satisfaction with the destination leads to customer loyalty and this in turn gives a higher level of intention to repeat the visit.Quality gastronomy is a decisive factor in satisfaction, as it produces a lasting memory about the experience lived by the tourist. Thus, depending on the expectations held by the consumer as to the †¦ the cuisine of the destination is an aspect of utmost importance in the quality of the holiday experience. Javier Blanco Herranz 8 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism gastronomy of the destination, such expectations predict behaviour. Here is where success lies: having tourists revisit the destination due to its gastronomy. The festive atmosphere, relaxation and fun experienced by the tourist during a gastronomic route, and the social interaction with people of similar interests create associations in the tourist’s mind linked to the good times experienced by the visitor.To recap, gastronomic tourism is a local phenomenon of universal scope that is in a clear growth phase; it has a positive impact on the economy, employment and local heritage, as tourists seek to get to know not only the local food but also to know its origin and production processes, making it an expression of cultural tourism; it has grea t potential for expansion as a main motivation for tourism trips and although this type of tourism is still practised by a minority of tourists, the fact is that it is attracting a very select type of tourist with a high volume of expenditure on very high-quality products, and lastly, the development of gastronomic tourism contributes to improving the general perception of the destination. the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece, Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November 2010. 1 QUAN, S. & WANG, N. 2004, â€Å"Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism† Tourism management, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 297-305. 2 HALL, C. M. & SHARPLES, L. (2003). â€Å"The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste† in Food tourism around the world. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 1-24. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 9 Global trends in food tourism A people that does not drink its wine and eat its cheese has a serious identity problem. † Inaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant on food tourism The development of tourism today is paradoxical. It simultaneously generates processes of globalization and enhanced appreciation of local resources. Tourism destinations, obliged to maintain increasingly intense competitiveness and engaged in a constant struggle to retain some of their market, face an increasingly dynamic and sophisticated environment. The world is increasingly open; however, tourists seek experiences based on local identity and culture. In recent years gastronomy has become an indispensable element in order to get to know the culture and lifestyle of a territory.Gastronomy embodies all the traditional values associated with the new trends in tourism: respect for culture and tradition, a healthy lifestyle, authenticity, sustainability, experience†¦ Likewise, gastr onomy represents an opportunity to revitalize and diversify tourism, promotes local economic development, involves different professional sectors (producers, chefs, markets, etc. ), and brings new uses to the primary sector. This leading role of gastronomy in the choice of destination and tourism consumption has resulted in the growth of gastronomic offerings based on high-quality local products and the consolidation of a separate market for food tourism. What are the major global trends and the keys to success that can be observed in this development of food tourism? It is a growing market.The growth of food tourism worldwide is an obvious fact. It is one of the most dynamic segments within the tourism market. But what are food tourists like? They are tourists who take part in the new trends of cultural consumption. They are travellers seeking the authenticity of the places they visit through food. They are concerned about the origin of products. They recognize the value of gastron omy as a means of socializing, as a space for sharing life with others, for exchanging experiences. Such tourists have higher-thanaverage expenditure, they are demanding and appreciative, 10 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism and they eschew uniformity.Therefore, gastronomy cannot become a bland and anonymous product; it must have personality, because otherwise it will become vulnerable, de-localized and subject to adulteration. The territory is the backbone of gastronomic offerings. The terroir is an element that differentiates and is the source local identity. It encompasses environmental and landscape values, history, culture, traditions, the countryside, the sea, the own cuisine of the place. In this regard, the conversion of the territory into a culinary landscape is one of the challenges of tourism destinations. The product is the basis of Food Tourism. Therefore, natural resources we are going to convert into tourism products that make it possible to identify this territory. Cultural Heritage.Culture is the set of behaviours, knowledge and customs that shape a society and on which a sense of belonging is based. The design of any food tourism offering will not viable if it does not take into account the cultural characteristics of the territory. Gastronomy allows tourists to access the cultural and historical heritage of destinations through tasting, experiencing and purchasing. That is, it makes it possible to approach culture in a more experiential and participatory way that is not purely contemplative. We must also take into account the emergence of new cultural values, which increase the richness and cultural diversity of the country. In this regard, Tradition and Innovation coexist in a natural manner.Gastronomic tradition is in a process of continuous evolution, and the challenge for professionals is to incorporate innovation in order to renew and adapt their offerings to the needs of the new cultural consumer. Sustainability. Food tourism is capa ble of addressing cultural and environmental concerns in a way that is compatible with purely economic arguments. The recent history of global tourism development is littered with nominally sustainable models and manifestly unsustainable actions. The idea is not to create new indiscriminate pressure on culinary heritage, but to leverage it rationally with an eye to sustainability. It is not about â€Å"touristifying† gastronomy, by creating new offerings or scaling up existing ones. It is not so much bout creating in order to attract, but rather attracting visitors to participate in the destination’s own cultural reality, well explained and interpreted, through cuisine, local products and all the services and activities that surround them. Quality. Destinations that want to promote food tourism have and recognition of local products, the development of a competitive offering, the professionalism of human resources throughout the value chain of food tourism through trai ning and retraining, and consumer protection and reception in order to increase visitor satisfaction. Communication. Destinations must articulate a credible and authentic narrative of their food tourism offerings.The travel experience has changed and is not limited to the days of actual travelling, but rather it starts much earlier, with its preparation (the tourist becomes inspired, gathers information, compares, purchases), and the experience ends when the traveller assesses and shares his experiences through social networks. Playing key roles in the process are: the great chefs who have ignited a revolution in the segment of high-end cuisine as a revitalizing element for tourism, the media (especially television), tourist guides, food blogs and social networks in the image building of a destination. And destinations must be present in all channels and all parts of this process. Cooperation.It is necessary for the actors operating in chefs, restaurateurs, public administrations, h oteliers, food tourism product offerings. Inaki Gaztelumendi UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 11 What our Members say With a view to the publication of the Global Report on Food Tourism, a survey was conducted among the UNWTO Members, working in diverse sectors around the world, were received in this regard. Strategy According to the results this survey, 88. 2% of respondents the brand and image of their destination. Only 11. 8% were of the opinion that gastronomy plays a minor role. â€Å"gastronomy is a strategic and image of their destination† However, a smaller percentage of respondents believe that their country has its own gastronomic brand: only percentage (32. %) believe that their country has not structured its own brand of gastronomy, meaning that, in general, destinations still have some ways to go in terms of Gastronomic Culture Among the elements of the gastronomic culture of the destination which they consider should be featured in promotional campaigns today , most respondents cite the quality, variety and regional diversity of foods, notably, meat, etc. As added value they lean towards broader concepts such as the Mediterranean diet, included on the UNESCO World Heritage list, healthy cooking, sustainability, or multiculturalism. They also point to the importance of restaurant offerings with a strong local basis (Mediterranean, oriental, ethnic, etc. ) that combine tradition and innovation, and the role of international cuisine.As for gastronomic tourism products that exist in their place the importance of food events (expressed by 79% of 12 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism respondents). This is followed by gastronomic routes and cooking classes and workshops, with 62% answering and visits to markets and producers (53%). Having less weight among gastronomic tourism product offerings are museums (cited by only 12% of respondents), and presentations with 6% of positive answers. 68% of the organizations consulted carry out marketing ac tivities or promotion based on Food Tourism. The marketing and promotional tools most used by these entities are: organizing events (91%), producing brochures and advertising (82%) and dedicated websites on food tourism (78 %).At a lower level are promotional tools such as tourism guides (61%), blogs (43%), and familiarization trips for journalists and tour operators (13%). And lastly, only 4% of the organizations surveyed said they used social networks for the promotion of food tourism. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 13 Economic Impact Currently food tourism is still a regional phenomenon. According to the results of the survey, the marketing of gastronomic tourism products gives top priority to the regional market. At a second level are the local and national markets. And in last place is the international market. Finally, the survey asked respondents for an estimate of the economic impact of food tourism on their destination.In general, most of the organizations surveyed ind icated that there is still no systematic analysis of the economic impact of food tourism. However, they consider that the weight of gastronomy in tourism revenue in destinations have a large margin to work with in this respect. Cooperation Asked about the existence at their destination of collaboration between the tourism sector and local gastronomy actors (producers, restaurants, markets, etc. ), the general opinion is that there is cooperation on concrete marketing actions, in particular, with local restaurants, but there are currently no stable instruments of cooperation for the development and promotion of food tourism. In fact, 37. 5% of respondents recognizeFrom the results of the survey it is possible to draw a set of general recommendations for tourism destinations promotion of food tourism. First, traditional strategies in the development of food tourism must give way to strategic tools to articulate the quality, variety and uniqueness of local products and gastronomy of a territory. These offerings, presented with authenticity and as experiences to be lived, must be based on the values of cultural identity, sustainability, the quality of tourism products and services, and consumer protection. Also, in a highly competitive situation like the â€Å"we need to create stable instruments of cooperation for the development and promotion of food tourism† 14 UNWTOGlobal Report on Food Tourism current one, market knowledge should be one of the food guides—the organization of events, the media and use of the Internet and social networks. Third, both in the conceptualization as well as in the Members agree on the importance of establishing cooperation instruments among all actors in the value chain of Food Tourism at the local level (producers, tour operators, public administrations, etc. ). Finally, the survey shows the need to promote knowledge and research on Food Tourism. Therefore, the creation of plans to establish development guidelines and create gastronomic tourism products is seen as a priority for destinations. f seizing the opportunity represented by gastronomy for destinations. Key factors in this regard are: bringing chefs on board as interpreters of the territory, the development of high-quality and credible promotional tools—such as And additionally the following partners: UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 15 Case Studies International Initiatives Euro-toques in Europe: 3500 artisan cooks in defence of â€Å"eating well† Euro-Toques is neither a promotion association nor a new which are our best products. Our goal is to give value to seasonal products and to defend regional artisan production. Euro-Toques is recognized by the European Union as an organization that defends Quality Food.It forms part of the privileged network of contacts of the European Commission. Euro-toques acts as a lobby group in European and national institutions. The organization focuses its activities on Food Law as well as on the new Common Agricultural Policy, the Common Fisheries Policy and DG SANCO activities. Our bywords: Taste, Safety, Authenticity. And therefore: Act in order not to suffer. The art of cooking should adapt itself to our times. Let us be creative, let us be open to neighbouring cultures, but let us preserve our beautiful regional traditions and adapt them to modern tastes. These are the foundations of quality gastronomic tourism.We advocate a model based on the diversity of traditions and regions, quality products, products of the land and traditional recipes, which are the guarantee of the culinary heritage and continuity of local products. The products used in our kitchens are fresh and are prepared on the premises. Our work is based on seasonal products in order to respect the cycles of nature and ensure an authentic taste. And this respect for tradition is compatible with modernity: the pleasure and the art of living are passed on. Moreover, we chefs play an important role in consumer protection and the preservation of knowledge of our territory. Not only do we help people eat well, but we also welcome visitors and advise them about our gastronomy, products, places†¦ President, Euro-Toques Spain 18 UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismAt present, one of the major projects of Euro-toques is the creation of a gastronomic map of Spain. A map in which typical local products are represented in each community, province, city and town; and if possible accompanied by recipes. Traditional recipes, and modern ones as well. Recipes that show that the identity of a land is also determined by its products, by the producers who cultivate them, and by the cooks who buy and transform them, thus disseminating a gastronomic culture. The idea is to ultimately develop a collection of recipes that represent a distillation of local cuisines, thus highlighting the diversity of the different territories of Spain.The project consists of putting together an anthology of th e products and recipes of the various peoples of Spain, with the ultimate goal of producing a manual and a history of the different parts of our country that are named or are renowned for a product, a dish or an outstanding gastronomic activity. Euro- toques is an international organization representing more than 3500 chefs and cooks from 18 countries. It was founded by Pierre Romeyer, Paul Bocuse, Juan Mari Arzak and Pedro Subijana, among other famous chefs, on 18 November 1986, in Brussels, at the urging of the European Commission President Jacques Delors. The main objectives of Euro-toques are: To promote the good practices of artisan food producers. To protect the culinary heritage of Europe in all its diversity and with its different origins.To safeguard the healthiness of food products and encourage natural combinations. To demand proper labelling in order to provide consumers with clear information allowing them to make choices based on solid criteria. euro-toques. org Let us be creative, let us be open to neighbouring cultures, but let us preserve our beautiful regional traditions and adapt them to modern tastes. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 19 Food and the tourism experience Greg Richards, Tilburg University, Netherlands Food and tourism play a major part in the contemporary experience economy. Food is a key part of all cultures, a major element of global intangible heritage and an increasingly important attraction for tourists.The linkages between food and tourism also provide a platform for local economic development, and food experiences help to brand and market destinations, as well as supporting the local culture that is so attractive to tourists (Hjalager and Richards, 2002; OECD, 2009). Food experiences have become more important in tourism as the ‘Experience Economy’ has developed. Pine and Gilmore (1999) argue that the consumer no longer pays for the basic service, but for the complete experience. In the case of food, peop le are willing to pay a premium for the added value offered by food experiences, which provide a gateway into local culture, creativity and landscapes. Tourist food experiences in particular are often contrasted with ‘everyday’ or basic eating, as people search for ‘authenticity’ and distinction in local food and gastronomy.Food provides a basis for tourism experiences by: Linking culture and tourism Developing the meal experience Producing distinctive foods Developing the critical infrastructure for food production and consumption Supporting local culture Food experiences can also stimulate local development, because food tourism is high yield tourism, that can extend the tourist season and diversify rural economies. Food experiences are labour intensive and create jobs while creating backward linkages that stimulate agriculture, and they generally do not require major new investment. Food can contribute to regional attractiveness, sustain the local enviro nment and cultural heritage and strengthen local identities and sense of community.Food and gastronomy can also in themselves be considered as creative industries, helping to stimulate innovation by involving the consumer in co-creation, stimulating links between global and local cultures (e. g. Fusion foods, foodways that link cultures) and creating narratives around food. In this sense, gastronomic tourism can be seen as a form of ‘creative tourism’ (Richards, 2011), which allows 20 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism tourists to develop their creativity though contact with local people and their creative lives. Major areas of innovation currently taking place around food, gastronomy and tourism include creative tourism experiences (such as cooking and food appreciation courses), food events, food trails, new cuisines (e. g. New Asian Cuisine in Singapore) and building narratives around food.Food can also provide the basis of branding and marketing activities, includi ng: Partnerships between food producers, rastaurants and the tourism industry Setting standards for local foods Lifestyle positioning, emphasizing the attractiveness of lifestyles related to gastronomy Indentifying niches Theming and packaging Developing specialty restaurants Communicating the national or regional brand through gastronomy (such as the Prove Portugal programme). The numerous case studies in the OECD study indicate that the critical success factors for food experiences in tourism include Providing a good culinary offer at home, that stimulate appreciation of food and support gastronomy that is also attractive to visitors. Developing a network of good quality restaurants Developing food and wine exportation. Education and training and attracting talent Positioning chefs in world rankings (for example ‘Gastrostars’ such as Ferran Adria) Linking food experiences to tourist needs Providing ‘glocalised’ fods that link to tourist needs as well as s howcasing authentic local cuisine or national and regional authorities: Ensure a solid base of local food culture Start from the basics (Quality, authenticity, locality) Build coalitions (Public, private partnership) Spread the message (Build the brand, communicate clearly) Develop a holistic approach (Tourism should be seen as one aspect of the entire food value network) tilburguniversity. edu References In Dodd, D. (ed. ) Food and the Tourism Experience. OECD, Paris, pp. 13-46. Gastronomy. Routledge, London. OECD (2009) The Impact of Culture on Tourism. Paris: OECD. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Richards, G. (2011) Creativity and tourism: The state of the art. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), Pages 1225–1253. Greg Richards UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 21 FODA fuel†.If it is thought of as a nourishing substance, taken into the body to sustain life, provide energy, and promote growth, then we’re on the way to healthy living. If however, it is th ought of merely as fuel, to be consumed as quickly and as cheaply as possible, as it is so often these days, we’re heading in a dangerous, unsustainable direction; we’re heading towards monoculture of the lowest common denominator, leading to all manners of physical and social ills. Thankfully, increasing numbers of people around the world Catherine Gazzoli, and tradition, and the positive social impacts of developing culinary tourism. The Slow Food Foundation for Biodiversity shares these aims.It protects the environment, defends food biodiversity, promotes sustainable agriculture, supports small-scale producers and values their traditional knowledge. It runs projects around the world, such as the Ark of Taste, an international catalogue of traditional products at risk of extinction; Forgotten Foods, saving original breeds, vegetable varieties, breads and cheeses; Earth Markets promoting regional producers in their local communities; A Thousand Gardens In Africa, crea ting food gardens in schools, villages and urban areas. In Britain we recently presented Slow Food UK Week, featuring occasions such as Eating the Italian Way, a food art performance from the year 2062, a ground-breaking – Kentish Cob Nut.The climax of the week was a form of Food Roulette, where members of the public spun our nine-foot, green and orange Forgotten Foods Wheel, featuring British foods that are largely unknown to the general public. Samples of each were placed in trays set in each section. Whatever you landed on was yours! People tried Dove’s Farm Einkorn Flour, an ancient grain made into a dense, nutty bread, and quite rightly asked â€Å"Why have we heard of cous cous from Morocco, and quinoa from Peru, but not einkorn from Britain? † There were also Three Little Pigs chorizo, made from big, black hairy Rare-Breed Berkshire Pigs, and Jersey Black 22 UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismButter, a fruit based condiment that a Food Roulette winner sai d tasted like â€Å"Christmas in a Jar†. These and many other foods have been collected as Forgotten producers. For example, the sales of Morecambe Bay as a Forgotten Food. By highlighting a particular heritage food and community, consumers are encouraged to visit that community, widening the reach for the programme. Further good news is that the popularity of farmers markets, the appreciation of artisan producers, and the demand for culinary tourism are all on the rise. are voting with their feet and wallets for good, clean, fair food. Culinary tourism does not have to mean gourmet food. It is increasingly about unique and memorable experiences. It includes the dining xperience itself, but also an awareness that supporting such endeavours has the ability to generate rural development. It helps to diversity revenue sources, and improves rural employment and income levels. Economic objectives are as crucial as environmental, measurable, via better prices, quantities produced, and numbers employed. Local foods are disappearing their activity, producers must have economic assurance about their future. A wonderful example of integrated economic, environmental, cultural and social activity, are the Food Safaris run by Henry and Carolyn Chesshire in Herefordshire, Shropshire, Worcestershire and Wales. They are a local couple who have lived in this tranquil rural area their whole lives.They take groups of people – birthday parties, hen and stag parties, work outings, etc. – on culinary mystery tours, introducing them to the best locally produced food and drink. The visitors literally â€Å"eat the landscape†. So returning to our original topic, you can see that more and more people around the world are valuing food biodiversity and tradition, and the culinary tourism that this generates positively impacts communities. Here at Slow Food UK we will keep working passionately to promote good, clean, fair food. And you I am sure will be doing t he same for your local, regional and national communities. When it comes to foda, let’s all vote for nourishment rather than fuel. lowfood. org. uk Another wonderful legacy of Slow Food UK Week is our Chef Alliance. Many of Britain’s best chefs are now actively championing small-scale producers and their top quality, local, sustainably produced food. The chefs have created special menus using seasonal Forgotten Foods, and helped people to discover food that really matters, and drink that quenches more than thirst. Double Michelin-starred chef Marcus Wareing created a special menu for Slow Food UK Week using Forgotten Foods and heritage products such as Middle White Colchester oysters and Herdwick sheep, and has recently added Joe Schneider’s Artisan Stilton to the cheeseboard.Including these foods on the menu, increases interest in these products and encourages patrons to seek them out on their own. The chefs play a vital role in spreading awareness of quality p roduce threatened by the onslaught of industrial agriculture, environmental degradation, and market homogenization. They support artisan producers to revive and even rediscover traditional techniques. Catherine Gazzoli Slow Food UK also has a retail partner, Booth’s, a small chain of family-owned supermarkets in Northern England. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 23 Tourism Destinations Azerbaijan: Aromas and tastes of the East with a European twist Larisa Javanshir, Editor-in-Chief, international tourism magazine Azerbaijan ReviewThe culinary masters of Azerbaijan have always attracted the admiration of visiting guests with their artistic skills. When merchants and warriors, historians and ambassadors of the Great Silk Road crossed the country, they often shared memories of the generous balmy cuisine of the Caspian state and brought home stories about the wonderful dishes they had been treated to. Azerbaijan cuisine has long won recognition both in the East and in Europe a s one of the most interesting on an historians and travelers and recorded in ancient written sources. The history of the art of creating culinary recipes in Azerbaijan is centuries old and based on the huge experience of ancestral cooks which has been kept to the present day. eople have become famous for their longevity. According to scientists this is down to the country’s favorable climate, lifestyle, ecologically pure products and principles of and vegetable dishes, all supplemented with soft greens and piquant spices. Friendliness towards those who come to eat and constant readiness to invite as many friends to table as possible, as well as the generous variety of offered dishes and snacks never cease to amaze foreign guests. as an invitation to a come to a generously laid table for the richest feast of tastes. Kebab houses in Azerbaijan have a similar importance to taverns in Italy, eating-houses in the Slavic countries, bistros in France etc.In the case of kebab houses however, every Since ancient times, ‘shashlik’ (kebab) has been the most favourite and traditional food among Azerbaijanis who live in northern, southern and western Azerbaijan. Shashlik course, taste it. The famous and delicious Azerbaijan ‘tendir chorek’ is, too, baked in natural ovens, just as juicy and aromatic shishlik is. 26 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism A sweet fairytale The Azerbaijan people’s favorite is pilaw, the main butter and saffron. Pilaw lovers are particularly fond of this type of rice cooked with Cornelian cherries. It is an exclusively impressive, beautiful and healthy dish, cooked for a long time while the aroma of meat, rice, butter and greens start teases the senses two to three hours before dinner. Be patient and you won’t regret it afterwards!By tradition, meals are crowned with sweets. In addition, main holidays of the country, e. g. ‘Novruz bayram’, inspire a true championship of baking. According to numerous foreign tourists who have tasted many local desserts, Azerbaijani national confectionery creates an unforgettable feeling of joyful discovery of a new world which tempts and allures over and over again. The main advantage of these dishes is that they are cooked on the basis of ancient, centuries-old recipes by using organic and ecologically pure products Weather-wise, March is one of the most uncertain months in Azerbaijan, though it is also the merriest since it is when the Novruz holiday is celebrated.The national cuisine of Azerbaijan always abides by centuries-old traditions, while the spring nuances of oriental dishes are the yet sparing sun and the awakening land help young herbs and vegetables to grow juicy, spicy, sweet or ‘with a touch of bitterness’. honey, select walnuts and hazelnuts, village eggs, perfect spices, as well as different additives which render any many unique recipes among which are those of ‘rakhatlukum’, ‘gozina ki’, ‘noghul’, jellied fruits and other â€Å"sweet fairy-tales† of Azerbaijan cookery which can stay fresh, soft and exquisite in appearance. You can taste the dishes of Azerbaijan cuisine listed in this article in almost any restaurant or kebab house, particularly in Baku, the capital city.Hospitable owners and cooks will offer you the best menu of the season and will always wish you â€Å"Noosh olsoon! † The Azerbaijani autumn brings health. This effect is also largely promoted by subtropical plants, the fruits of which are sparingly supplied to markets because when ripe this tender masterpiece of gardening art is balmy drink – none other than date-plums. There are nearly two hundred kinds of persimmon, of which only 4 or 5 are cultivated as garden residents. The best sort – the so-called ‘korolyok’ – is popular not only for its sugary pulp, but also for its magical salubrious qualities. Be aware that round and s olid fruits of quince conceal magical qualities of southern gardens.They are covered with thin velvet bloom and are hard to chew on, but once processed, quince is irreplaceable for tea-drinking. It is also indispensable as an ingredient for garnishing meat dishes, or for cooking special diet dishes. Condensed quince juice is used both as a sauce and as a panacea against anemia. Seeds and leaves of quince are also medicinal, as their aqueous tincture enfeebles and stops more popular than imported bananas, pineapples and coconuts. They are successfully replaced by kiwi, feijoa, walnuts and chestnuts. Larisa Javanshir UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 27 Brazil and its Paths of Flavour There are many ways of knowing the soul of a people.One of the most fascinating is, without a doubt, the gastronomy. The art of combining foods and seasonings, the rituals of preparing and serving, the pleasure of being together by the dining table, all of that is part of the much wider universe of thi s cultural heritage, this never ending set of values that determine our identity. It is exactly because of that, that gastronomy, besides being a competitive differential for tourism, is one of the tools that reveal the characteristics, traces, and culture of a people. Tourism, one of the most growing activities in the whole President of National Administrative Council, Brazilian Association of Bars and Restaurants (ABRASEL) ourism – by focusing its attention on valuing physical and intangible heritage, restoring traditions and preserving and spreading the symbols of national identity – is capable of opening borders for different investments and businesses. Few nations in the world have the privilege of having a culinary with such abundance of raw material, products, seasonings and aromas. Nature was generous with Brazil. We have some of the most beautiful natural scenarios of the planet, that helped create our country. Our gastronomy is a rare combination of simplicit y and exoticism, with traces of the identity of a one-of-a-kind culture. The discovery of Brazil is a never-ending adventure. The continental enormity of the country divides it into regions with clearly distinct gastronomic characteristics.In a simple way, it can be highlighted the gastronomy from the North/ Central-West, from the Northeast and from the South/ Southeast. In the North/Central-West regions, the intensity of the forests and rivers result in a great variety of exotic ingredients, diverse region’s tourist destinations related to nature, the Amazon Forest and the Pantanal – very exclusive ecosystems that are highly preserved – are strongly explored. The Forest and the Pantanal are certainly two of the biggest natural attractions of the country. Mother Nature was especially generous with the Brazilian Northeast region. There are three thousand kilometres of 28 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism the most beautiful beaches of clear and warm water, bless ed with a permanent summer.In each state of the Northeast, elements of African, indigenous, and European origins are joined in an explosion of sounds, richest Brazilian gastronomies, symbol of the hospitality of a people of simple soul and chanted speech. Much more than the basic trilogy of sun, beach and sea food, the Northeast is a region that has already consolidated its touristic calling and explores with originality its traditions and typical products. On this aspect, it should be highlighted the appropriation by the coastal culinary of elements of the countryside cooking, putting side by side gains more importance with the development of highly elaborated products for the Brazilian’s and the foreign tourist’s tastes.However, so many gastronomic values reunited, such diversity and gigantic harmony existing between cultural heritage and Brazil? s natural beauties may be useless if there is no safety in the production chain related to the food and beverage in the co untry. The Brazilian Government authorities are permanently concerned with the patterns of Food Safety of all that is served to its resident population as well as to the foreign tourists that are either visiting or on business in Brazil. The rules of surveillance and control in Brazil are comprehensive and strict, but knowing this is not enough for us. It is necessary that countries they visit or work safety criteria acknowledged internationally.This acknowledgement will guarantee that international tourists can travel from country to country consuming the local food with tranquillity at the same time that they feel that their health is not in jeopardy. ABRASEL – The Brazilian Association for Bars and Restaurants is committed to assisting and developing these international criteria with special concern regarding important international sports events that will be hosted in a near future in our country. The FIFA World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016 will certainly hel p to disseminate the greatness of Brazilian gastronomy and the beauty and diversity of our tourist attractions. abrasel. com. br colonizers was highlighted: Portuguese, Italians, Germans and Arabs.Each of them lent to Brazilians ingredients and techniques that were developed here and allowed great part of the diverse gastronomy that characterizes us. Born in the South, the Gaucho barbecue spread all over the country and became a product of export, becoming one of the most recognized strengths of the Brazilian gastronomy abroad. In the countryside of the Southeast region, the culinary from Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo are mixed with subtle borders, resulting in different, outstanding and highly representative dishes of the Brazilian gastronomy and its culture. Our Caipirinha deserves special attention – important mark of the Brazilian intangible heritage and an internationally recognized icon.Every year the production of Cachaca UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 29 The Egyptia n food tourism experience Consumption is an integral aspect of the tourism experience, with the tourist consuming not only the sights and sounds, but also the taste of a place. Nearly all tourists eat out when they into another culture as it allows an individual to experience the â€Å"other† on a sensory level, beyond the purely intellectual. Locally produced food is a fundamental component of a destination’s attributes, adding to the range of attractions and the overall tourist experience. This makes food an essential constituent of tourism production as well as consumption.Furthermore, eating out is a growing form of leisure where meals are consumed not out of necessity but for pleasure, and the atmosphere and occasion are part of the leisure experience as much as the food itself. However, for tourists, eating out can both be a necessity and a pleasure. While some tourists dine simply to satisfy their hunger, others will head for a particular restaurant to experienc e the local food and cuisine, because it forms an important component of their travel itinerary. The growth of eating out as a form of consumption and the market forces of globalization have made the food products and cuisines from all over the world more accessible. This has stimulated the emergence of food as a popular topic in magazines, radio shows and television, with food shows focusing on travel and travel shows on food.In fact, the popularity of 24 hour television channels, such as Fatafeet devoted to food and its origins intertwines food with tourism so much that quite often it is hard to determine whether one is watching a food show or a travel show. Such developments have spurred an interest in experiencing the unique and indigenous food, food products and cuisines of a destination, so much so that people can cuisines or to taste the dishes of its â€Å"celebrity chef†. A very good example would be Gulf Tourists coming to Cairo in Ramadan to enjoy the unique food a nd atmosphere during the holy months in Egypt. Very often, tour operators tend to include a visit to Khan El Khalili in all Cairo schedules in order for tourists to enjoy oriental food and a unique atmosphere. From an economic point of view, nearly 100% of tourists spend money on food at their destination.Data shows that restaurant operators Egyptian Tourism Authority 30 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism reported that tourists are important to their business. This suggests that tourists’ food consumption makes a substantial contribution to the local restaurants, dining places, and food industry, and thereby the destination’s economy. In an increasingly competitive tourism marketplace, every region or destination is on a constant search for a unique product to differentiate itself from other destinations. Local food or cuisines that are unique to an area are one of the distinctive resources that may be used as marketing tool to attract more visitors.The growth of spec ial interest tourism is seen as a of the early 21st century leisure society. Post-modern tourism is slowly moving away from the traditional tourism attractions to being a part of an overall lifestyle that corresponds to people’s daily lives and activities. The growth of culinary tourism is seen as an outcome of this trend, as well as peoples’ tendency to spend much less time cooking, but choose to pursue their interest in food as part of a leisure experience such as watching cooking shows, dining out etc. Thus culinary tourism is a special interest for the tourist travel behavior and falls on the upper end of the food tourism interest continuum.The culinary tourist is also a cultural tourist. Thus, the obvious overlap of food as a special interest component as well as a cultural component makes the culinary tourist possibly both a special tourist and a cultural tourist. A survey of Special Interest Tours on the internet demonstrates that there are numerous tour operato rs conducting culinary tours all over the world. The culinary Cooking school holidays, Dining at restaurants famous for their local cuisines or their celebrity chefs and visiting food markets, Visiting food producers with tours specially related to just one product. Most culinary tours include a combination of all three types.In addition to the annual and periodical Culinary Awards Conferences that take place worldwide. Food is now listed as one of the components of cultural tourism, implying that food is representative of a culture. One of the dominate approaches in the social sciences used to explain food consumption is the cultural approach, with the others being economic and the psychological. With respect to tourism, even though tourists come across potentially unfamiliar foods to a greater degree at the destination than they would at home, globalization with its time and space compression has permitted more people to experience ethnic and foreign foods at their home.Finally an d as previously stated, in an increasingly competitive world of tourism marketing, where destinations look for unique selling propositions in positioning themselves, there is nothing more unique than the foods and cuisines based on locally-produced food in each destination. egypt. travel UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 31 Food and wine tourism in Georgia There is a strong direct link between gastronomy and tourism, and gastronomy’s role in the development of niche travel is becoming even more important. When it comes to Georgia, gastronomy plays an extremely important role in the way tourists experience the destination, and for that matter some travellers return for the sole reason of savouring the unique and diverse gastronomy the country has to offer.Therefore, it would be well substantiated to assert that gastronomy is one of the key elements of our destination’s brand image. The enjoyment of good food and drink should not be underestimated; nowadays, there is a greater appreciation of how quality food and drink contribute to individual/societal wellbeing; Georgia is making all-out efforts to gain a niche in the highly competitive global tourism market, and is keen to assert itself as an attractive destination for gastronomy tourists. From ancient times agriculture has played a major role in Georgia, and to this day it remains one of the most promising sectors of Georgia’s economy. Forty-four percent of Georgia’s total area is considered to be agricultural.The country’s agricultural production is diverse, including viticulture, cereal production, and a wide range of vegetables, fruits, nuts, livestock, dairy, citrus and tea. Wheat and corn along with the milk and dairy sector are particularly strong, with the regions of the country. Georgia’s diverse climatic conditions and natural resource endowment allow production of a wide variety of agricultural products and favour the competitive development of the sector. Agriculture, apart from being crucial for economic development, is an essential element of Georgian culture. No agriculture means no cuisine; agriculture plays an essential role in keeping the beautiful landscapes of this country alive which constitute the major assets that tourists appreciate and value when arriving to Georgia.Georgia boasts the oldest, continuous, unbroken tradition of wine making in the world which stretches back 8,000 years. In fact it is said to be the birthplace of wine. Many say that the generic word ‘wine’ stems from the Georgian word ‘gvino’. Over 500 indigenous grape varieties are still cultivated here. The warm climate and moist air rising from the Black Sea provide the perfect conditions for the cultivation of grapevines. After many centuries of perfecting the tradition, it is not surprising that Georgian wines – Saperavi, Tsinandali, Mukuzani, Teliani, Napereuli are exquisite. Winemaking remains a vital part of Georgian Georgian National Tourism Administration 32 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism culture and national identity.Georgian families throughout the country grow their own grapes and produce wine the old-fashioned way, by placing grape juice in underground clay jars, or kvevri, topped with a wooden lid, covered and sealed with earth, to ferment during the winter. In Georgia, the food, just like wine, is quite reasonably an expression of the culture. Georgian cuisine, like those of other countries, varies from region to region. A when traveling east to west. Each historical province of Georgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, such as, for example, Megrelian, Kakhetian, or Imeretian cuisines

Monday, July 29, 2019


REFORMING THE NATION, RESPONDING TO WAR, FAMOUS SPEECHES - Essay Example The war had far-reaching effects in all aspects of the lives of the German people both politically, economically, socially, culturally and environmentally. There were tremendous changes in the culture of the German people after the First World War. The Nazis developed a belief that individuals were not important and what they needed was a strong government. An ideology was developed that women were to be trained for childbearing and home keeping while men were to be equipped with military and working skills (Roberts, p.46). These beliefs brought about a lot of changes in the way of life, education system, and culture of the German people. In the post world war one Germany, all learning institutions become single sex. Ladies and young men were given different forms of training. The different trainings offered ensured ladies did not have careers but become housewives after marriage. Young people in schools sung about aggression, brutality, and anti-Semitism. Young people were encouraged to play with guns and take pleasure in fighting. During that period, women were encouraged to have more than four children and those who complied were aw arded gifts. The lives of women were to revolve around â€Å"family, church and food preparation†. In addition, they were expected to shy away from smoking and wearing makeup. A lot of ideals were also developed for German households. In contrast to how women were treated, young boys were trained majorly in science and arithmetic. Their training involved a lot of physical exercises, and it was compulsory that they join the labor service at the age of eighteen. The work there was mainly blue-collar which ensured that men toughened up for the military. It was after that a requirement that every man serve in the military for two years before joining the workforce (Roberts, p. 46). Women were laid away off their jobs to create chances for men. After the war, many soldiers believed

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Prosady and Poetic Devices Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Prosady and Poetic Devices - Assignment Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that the former consists of what it literally is as well as something a little more abstract that stands for the same thing; the latter is when the word is used for what it stands for. Extended metaphors are metaphors that are drawn out beyond just the typical word. It usually extends itself throughout the stanza or the entire length of the poem. This is done by using more than one comparison between the different objects or concepts. While an allegory can sometimes be considered an extended metaphor, it is even rarer when trying to view it the other way around. It depends entirely on how constant the comparisons are within the poem itself. A symbol is the representation of another object through the use of graphics, the written word, and vocal or physical objects. These symbols are complex and abstract, and they usually present another concept that is even more abstract than the symbol itself. Symbolism is one of the most common poetic devic es, as well as a device often seen in regular forms of literature. Symbols are used when trying to display a concept without the author saying straight forwardly what they are trying to convey to their readers. It is important to include Historical Fiction in a schools curriculum that is written from more than one perspective and is culturally accurate because it allows students to see the different sides from an event that took place. Many historical pieces become biased based on which side they would have represented, making the opposing side into something horrible that it is not. Furthermore, in terms of being biased, sometimes the story is not told as it really went. Some authors twist the story around to make the losing side the winner, especially if they are representative of that winning side.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

International Trade and Finance Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Trade and Finance Law - Essay Example This paper is a critical analysis of the Bali Agreement. According to Baldwin, Kawai and Wignaraja (2014), the Bali Agreement forged a consensus on the following issues: a development program for Least Development Countries (LDCs), more Agricultural production and Trade facilitation. First, the LDC program was the least contentious of the three areas of negotiation, principally because the letter and spirit of these programs are best attempts to improve the economic status of the underdeveloped world rather than prompting the member states to agree to binding commitments. King (2013) noted that WTO members restated their determination to eliminating unfavourable trade tariffs, quota freedom and better market access for the LDCs. However, the real developmental benefits continue to be questionable. A limited export opportunity for LDCs implies anything less than absolute coverage will be immaterial in practice. Regardless, tariffs are declining rapidly, so the benefits of Duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) regimes are following the same trend. In Amoco Oil Company v The United States, United States Court of Appeals [1984] 749 F.2d 1576, for instance, the court used the platform provided by the case to eliminate trade barriers in its decision that tax duties on imports should not be calculated based on the content of the shipments (Baldwin, Kawai, & Wignaraja, 2014). As such, improvements of regulations in countries of origin for products and non-duty hindrances would have generated better outcomes to LDCs, considering that these are the hindrances to free market access. After one-decade-and a half of service waiver occasioned by WTO members providing preferential market opportunities on service business to the underdeveloped world without having to affect the position of their developed partners was passed in 2011 by WTO Ministerial

Friday, July 26, 2019

Criticisms of the Federal Reserve System Assignment

Criticisms of the Federal Reserve System - Assignment Example M1 is a category of supply of money that includes all the physical money; that is, currency and coins. It also includes negotiable order of withdrawal accounts and checking accounts. M2 is a category of money supply which includes M1 and saving deposits, market funds, and time related deposits. When M1/M2 is defined commercial institutions such as banks create money in the society. Fiscal policy is the way the government influences its economy through controlling its revenue or taxation and its expenditure. The federal reserve alone controls fiscal policy. If any other governmental entity was involved in this, Fed would have been scraped due to the criticism towards it. it is important to have three different governmental entities so that each one of them serves specific purposes for the public. This ensures that the public receives better services since they are handled efficiently. Fed is there in order to take care of a sensitive issue of money. It has a major influence on the economy of a country and therefore should be handled separately. In monetary policy there is an authority to control money supply to promote economic growth (Paul,

Newtons Law of Motion Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Newtons Law of Motion - Assignment Example Where the gram mass is taken to be 0.001kg. Generally, force is the agency to make a change. Mechanically, a force is anything that changes an object’s velocity. Force is characterized as a vector quantity this is because it has both direction and magnitude. An external force, on the other hand, is a force whose source is off the considered system. The Net External Force that acts on the object the acceleration of the object in the force’ direction. The acceleration is directly proportional to force and indirectly proportional to mass. The SI unit of force is Newton. One Newton is defined as the resultant force that gives a one-kilogram mass an acceleration equivalent to 1m/s^2. A pound is equivalent to 4.45N. Newton’s First Law states that â€Å"An object at rest will remain at rest; an object in motion will continue in motion with constant velocity, except insofar as it is acted upon by an external force† (Bradner & Susskind, 2006). Force is defined as the changer of motion. Meaning that there is a conventional tendency of an object to maintain its current position. All objects tend to resist changes in their current motion state. When the unbalanced force is absent, the object in a moving motion will maintain its motion state. Conversely, Newton’s Second Law was framed based on the momentum concept. Therefore, it is the net force F, that acts on the object with a mass m is zero, the object will accelerate in the force direction. The acceleration is proportional to force and indirectly proportional to object mass. With force in Newton’s, mass in kilograms, and acceleration in m/s^2, the relationship between the three variables is written as When the forces applied to an object are the elements of the external force that acts on the object. It is common knowledge that heavy objects need more force to move similar distance as the lighter objects.  

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Legal Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Legal Philosophy - Essay Example It is not possible to choose one over the other and nor is it possible to stand in between and interrupt the constant tension brought about by it cyclic relation. Whether a particular legal philosophy is merely an abstraction or of practical value is one that is constantly changing in the highway of history where old philosophies are constantly revived and injected with new vigor and applied to new contexts which stimulate to further growth of jurisprudence itself. The application of legal philosophy is found in in a different branch of law, in law practice, legislation and judicial adjudication particularly, and because of this many are of the opinion that jurisprudence does not have value in day to day life. This problem is aggravated by the human errors of lawyers, public officials and other people educated in the nuances of law. The mental stimulations and practical value of jurisprudence is best studied and determined from the tension of the dichotomies of theoretical traditions particularly between legal positivism and natural legalism, legal formalism and legal realism, public choice theories and critical legal studies, liberal and socialist-progressive ideologies, indeterminacy/mystification and determinacy of judicial decisions, and of subjectivism and structuralism. Lon L. Fuller (1981)2, on the purpose of legal philosophy, says: As I see it, the object of legal philosophy is to give an effective and meaningful direction to the work of lawyers, judges, legislatures, and law teachers. If it leaves the activities of these men untouched, it it has no implications for the question of what they do with their working days, then legal philosophy is a failure. Legal Positivism versus Natural Law Theory. For legal positivists, rights are are such and are legal if and only if they are declared to be such by the sovereign legal authority. From their viewpoint, the government exists before the right. The sovereign, in the form of legislature or executive with constitutional legislative powers or an administrative body enacting regulations with status of law, being the exclusive source of law must grant a right otherwise it does not exist. The magistrate only enforces the strictures of the law. For legal positivists, the criterion for validity of law is posited by the sovereing and is other than morality because for them, "it is in no sense a necessary truth that laws reproduce or satisfy certain demands of morality, though, in fact they have often done so. (Hart, p.181-2)3 The law as a social construct is the premise. The moral and political aspect of law is not denied, but positivism insists that the descriptive or conceptual

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

People in middleast don't want to workout to get in shape so they look Essay

People in middleast don't want to workout to get in shape so they look for easy ways - Essay Example ks on weight loss, and more gymnasiums have opened more than ever before, but the number of people losing weight around the world is not adding up to an appropriate number who should be fit due to the technology. For this paper, I will go by the thesis statement that people in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia do use alternative methods of losing weight rather than working out. Residents of the Middle East do not want to work out to get in shape, so they look for easy ways. According to the World Health Organization, obesity in the Middle East is a notable health issue. WHO results showed that approximately 1.6 billion people were overweight, and 400 million residents were obese. According to probability statistics, by the year 2015, 700 million individuals will be obese, and 2.3 billion people will be overweight; this number includes both adolescent and adults (World Health Organization 60). The spread of the Western lifestyle usually defined as the consumption of attractive energy dense meals with undesirable composition, elevated consumption of animal fats and sugars and decreased or non- consumption of dietary fiber, along with a lack of sufficient physical activity- is one of the principal origins of obesity and overweight problems in the Middle East (Roya 439). In as much as there are great numbers of individuals in the US who are obese, it is not bizarre to see people working out to get in shape. In the US, most people take exercise seriously and they exercise extensively and religiously as opposed to people in the Middle East especially Saudi Arabia (Al-Hazzaa 663-670). The difference in culture could be the reason as to why people in the US work out as opposed to those in Saudi Arabia. People do not necessarily work out in a gymnasium, but they run around their neighborhoods in the morning or afternoon. This routine makes the obesity situation in the US better than that of the Saudi Arabia. It is almost impossible to see people in the Middle East working

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Do a Case Brief of a news article Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Do a Brief of a news article - Case Study Example The allegations that have been brought to court comprise of detailed testimonies from managers at Wal-Mart, who claimed to have visited strip clubs to conduct company meetings and did not see any downside to visiting Hooters for the purpose of a business gathering. One female employee reported an incident where her male supervisors had told her to â€Å"doll up† and apply more makeup and dress appropriately. Dukes hence became the face of a case that was gathering momentum in court and making waves, mostly because of the fact that the case involved sworn statements from over a 100 female employees who claimed that they had faced discrimination, harassment or had to perform in a hostile work environment simply because of their sex and a failure of Wal-Mart management to address these problems. They went as far as to state that they were not given equal opportunities as their male peers and so hired a statistician to evaluate Wal-Mart’s payroll data to analyze the ratio of men who were progressing compared to female employees. So the allegations made were that women represented two-thirds of hourly employees, however it was seen that approximately less than 14 percent of them became store managers. On average, a woman employee waited 4.3 years to be promoted to the post of an assistant manager whereas for men the process took 2.86 years. Similarly men were promoted to the title of store manger in 8.64 years compared to the 10.12 years women employees had to wait. Lastly the allegations stated that women earned about 5 to 15 percent lesser than men, across all job categories. The ruling of the US Supreme Court, according to ‘The Guardian’, rejected these arguments which stated that there was a common policy of unfairness against women at Wal-Mart. Senior US judges came to the decision that this 10 year long gender bias case was in complete failure to meet the requirements for class action cases. Also a maximum number of conservative judges ruled that the

Monday, July 22, 2019

Identity Theft and Facebook Essay Example for Free

Identity Theft and Facebook Essay Bullying amp; Suicide 3F Social networking is the main source teenagers turn to when they want to bully other people. Harsh statements and name calling are what is said to make the victim feel lonesome and pathetic. Bullying can quickly turn into cutting yourself or even committing suicide. That’s what happened to Holly Grogan who was tormented in school who felt her last resort was to just make it all stop by killing herself. (McWilliams, Geraldine, 2009, para. 1) Cyberstalkers 5D Real-world stalkers are known to know their victims personally. The Huffington Post reports that victims said their cyberstalkers were either acquaintances or complete strangers with few or unclear motives for harassment. Only 4% reported being stalked by a former partner, compared with victims of face-to-face stalking, where around half are former partners. (April, 11, 2011, para. 5) Obsessed with Facebook 4C As of 2011, there are 500,000,000 active Facebook users, which is approximately 1 in every 13 people on Earth. 48% of 18-34 year olds check Facebook as soon as they wake up. A record-breaking 750 million photos were uploaded on the site on New Year’s weekend. 57% more people talk online rather than in real life. (Think Marketing and Communications, 2011, para. 4) Obesity 8H More and more children are becoming comfortable facing their computer every day. They don’t go outside to play and socialize with other kids face-to-face as much. Kids are getting addicted to computer online games, chats, and social networking. The result is less body activity, a reduction in quality of life, and serious health risks. Getting hooked to the computer tends to make a person lazy to move and socialize. It is best to prevent them early in their life with more time exercising and less computer time. (TechXplore Inc. , 2011, para. 2) Nigerian Scammers 7G Nigerian Scammers have always been a problem on the internet. Two years ago, they were impersonating people on Facebook and asking for money. Facebook does have a pretty secure security system, yet imposters are able to receive a person’s information with just the click of a button. 0% of the people scammed are fooled and end up getting their money stolen from who they thought was someone they knew and trusted. (AOL Inc. , January, 26, 2009, para. 1) Murder 6E Murder is one of the most common negative results when using cyberspace. For instance, 41-year-old Edward Richardson of Staffordshire, England, killed his 26-year-old wife, Sarah, for changing her relationship status on Facebook to â€Å"single. † This act enraged Edward which caused him to break down Sarah’s door and stabbed her to death. According to the government, hes been sentenced to life in prison. AOL Inc. , 2009, para. 2) Formspring 9I A relatively new website called â€Å"Formspring. me† is a common innovation of cyber-bullying. This online page allows teenagers to ask open-ended questions about themselves or friends, with the option to ask anonymously. Many comments are rude and sexual, which causes parents to radar what their child is doing. The majority of teenagers set up their account to Tumblr, another social network, and invite hundreds of friends to ask questions without identifying themselves. (Kary, Mary Kate, 2010, para. 1-2)